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昆虫有痛觉吗? – 译学馆
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昆虫有痛觉吗?

Do Insects Feel Pain?

Inés: Some time ago I made a Halloween special about cyborg beetles,
Inés:不久前 我做了一个机械甲虫的万圣节特辑
which explained how scientists had applied their knowledge
阐释了科学家们如何运用他们的知识
of how the nervous system and the flight muscles
把昆虫神经系统和飞行肌肉
of insects were connected to be able to
联系起来
make them fly using remote controlled electrodes.
从而遥控电极使其飞行的
It was definitely Halloween-worthy research,
这绝对是一项具有万圣节价值的研究
and there were some very insightful commenters
一些极具见地的评论家
who wanted to know more about the ethics
想更多的了解
of performing such an experiment on insects
在昆虫身上做实验的伦理
and whether insects were capable of feeling pain.
以及昆虫能否感觉到疼痛
So with these questions in mind,
带着这些问题
today I’m joined by the wonderful Alie from Neurotransmissions [Alie: hi!]
今天和我一起的是神经传递学的迷人的Alie [Alie: 大家好]
and we are going to be exploring all things relating to insect pain and neuroscience!
我们将一起探讨与昆虫痛觉和神经科学有关的所有东西
[intro animation by Caro Waro and Cristina de Manuel] Inés:
[由Caro Waro 和 Cristina de Manuel制作的动画简介]
The short answer to this question
Inés:就上面的问题 简要的回答就是
is that currently scientists do not have to clear
目前 科学家们并不需要明确
any ethics forms in order to experiment with insects,
任何理论形式 就可用昆虫进行试验
and based on current research
基于目前的研究来看
it is likely that they do not experience pain in response to harmful stimuli.
它们在面对有害刺激时可能感觉不到疼痛
Nonetheless, I’m sure you appreciate
但是 我相信你会明白
that this is a very tricky ethical topic
这是一个非常棘手的伦理问题
and that there is a lot more to it to arrive at this conclusion.
而且要得出结论还要很多其他的东西
So first of all… what is pain?
那么首先……痛觉是什么
Alie: Well, in basic terms,
Alie:嗯 简单地说
pain is defined as physical discomfort caused by illness or injury.
痛觉被定义为:因疾病或者受伤引起的生理不适
From a neuroscience perspective,
从神经科学的角度来说
pain is a sensation generated by our brain,
痛觉就是大脑产生的一种感觉
usually when it receives stimuli that it interprets to be a sign that
通常 它接受刺激时就传递出一种信号:
something is potentially causing harm or danger.
有某种可能引起伤害或者危险的东西存在
The type of nerve that transmits these signals are known as nociceptors,
传递这些信号的神经被称为伤害感受器
the latin nocere, “to harm”, meaning they are indicators of harm.
出自于拉丁文nocere “伤害” 即伤害的指示器
Inés: Think back to any time you lent on a radiator that was too hot,
Inés:回想一下 你借给别人的散热器太热的时候
got your finger jammed in something or accidentally brushed a nettle,
你的手指卡住了 或不小心碰到了荨麻
the painful feeling you felt was originally transmitted by a nociceptor.
你感受到的疼痛最初就是由伤害感受器传递的
However, our experience of pain is a bit more complicated than that.
然而 我们对疼痛的感受要比这复杂一些
Alie: Pain per se isn’t just the signal transmitted from the site of the injury by nociceptors.
Alie: 痛觉本身不仅仅是伤害感受器从受伤部位传递出的信号
It’s a combination of the injury signal and the brain’s reaction to that injury.
它是损伤信号和大脑对损伤的反应的结合
So when you feel pain,
所以当你感到疼痛时
it’s both the physical response to the injury,
所涉及的不仅是身体对伤害的反应
and also the emotional response generated by your brain.
还有大脑产生的情绪反应
We don’t understand everything about the process of pain in humans,
我们并不完全了解人类疼痛的全过程
precisely because it is an individual and internal response.
恰恰是因为 它是个人的内在反应
Some of you might be familiar with trying to explain to a doctor that you experience pain,
你们有些人可能比较熟悉这个场景 试图向医生表明你经历的痛楚
and being disbelieved due to a lack of obvious external symptoms,
却由于缺乏明显的外部特征而不被信任
which doesn’t negate the fact that the brain is generating the sensation,
但这不能否认你的大脑正在产生这种感觉
and so you’re feeling it.
而你正深受其苦
This makes understanding pain, suffering and distress in other animals even harder,
这让我们更能理解其他动物的疼痛 痛苦和危难
but it’s an important question in bioethics and in the field of animal welfare,
但这是生命伦理学和动物保护领域的一个重要问题
because we don’t want to cause other animals distress.
因为我们并不想引起其他动物的痛苦
Inés: Indeed!
Inés: 没错
And it’s currently impossible for us to know exactly
目前 我们不能准确地了解
what another animal’s experience is in response to a stimuli,
其他动物对刺激的反应是怎样的
and whether the way they process the world is in any way similar to ours or not.
它们认知世界的方式是否与我们类似
However, the best we can do to tell if an animal is in pain is to
然而 判断动物是否痛苦的最好就是
look out for external signs that could indicate distress and pain in the animal.
注意外在表现可以看出动物的痛苦
Alie: For instance, from the examples Inés listed earlier,
Alie: 比如Inés先前列出的例子
you might shout out loud when you burn yourself, or nurse a nettle rash
当你烧伤了或得荨麻疹了
and avoid using the affected hand to prevent further pain.
要避免使用受伤的手以免除更深的疼痛 都可以大声喊出来
These are signs that we can recognise as pain in humans,
有几种症状表明人类在遭受疼痛
and we can observe similar reactions in most vertebrates.
我们可以在大多数脊椎动物身上观察到类似的症状
Inés: The most common sign of pain in animals is lameness,
Inés: 动物最常见的疼痛症状就是跛行
which is generally an abnormal gait
这是一种不正常的步态
that minimises contact and pressure between certain body parts and the ground.
可以减少身体的某些部位与地面的接触和压力
Other signs could be licking, scratching or rubbing an injured site
其他症状可能是舔 挠 揉搓受伤部位
or vocalising when approached or when the painful area is touched,
抑或接近或者触摸到疼痛区域时叫出声来
as well as other changes in normal behaviour.
以及正常行为的其他变化
Alie: While we observe these behaviours in response to painful stimuli in vertebrates,
Alie: 我们观察脊椎动物对疼痛刺激的反应时
most invertebrates don’t show the same behaviour.
大多数无脊椎动物不会表现出同样的行为
When an ant loses a leg,
当蚂蚁失去了一条腿
or when a beetle is turned into a cyborg,
或者甲虫变成半机械时
they don’t display characteristic signs of lameness,
它们并没有变现出跛行的特征标志
nor do they alter their behaviour after the injury or experiment.
受伤或者实验后也没有改变自己的行为
It’s worth clarifying that not displaying certain external behaviours
值得澄清的一点是 不表现出某种特定的外部行为
doesn’t necessarily mean that an organism isn’t experiencing pain.
并不意味着有机体没在经历疼痛
Some animals might learn to hide their pain well to avoid
有些动物可能学会了很好地隐藏痛楚
being seen as vulnerable and getting targeted by predators,
从而避免被认为是脆弱的 成为捕食者的目标
and I’m sure we’ve all successfully hidden a headache from our peers.
我相信我们都成功地向同事隐瞒了自己头痛的事情
But even bearing that in mind,
但即便如此
it’s unlikely that insects perceive harmful stimuli in the same painful way as we do,
昆虫也不会向我们感知疼痛一样感知有害刺激
due to their external behaviours and their substantially smaller nervous system.
原因在于它们的外在表现及所具备的更小的神经系统
It’s difficult to say how “ aware ” insects are
很难说 昆虫对自己
of themselves and the world around them.
和周围的世界有多“敏感”
One could argue that their nervous system just
有人可能会说 它们的神经系统
isn’t complex enough to both signal an injury and generate an emotional response to it.
并没复杂到可以感知受伤信号 并对其产生情绪反应
Inés: Nonetheless, research into pain and nociceptors is ongoing.
Inés: 尽管如此 对痛觉和伤害感受器的研究一直在进行
Whilst most invertebrates don’t
但是大多数无脊椎动物并不需要
require ethical clearance to be used in laboratory experiments,
伦理许可就能被用于实验室进行实验
cephalopods do as they are known to be intelligent animals
众所周知 头足类动物是一种聪明的动物
and they do experience pain.
它们确实会经历疼痛
There have also been plenty of studies suggesting that
也有许多研究表明
basic nociceptor responses may exist in some insects.
一些昆虫可能存在基本的伤害反应感受器
For instance, Drosophila larvae thrash violently
比如 果蝇幼虫被烫伤
in response to being poked with a hot and piercing stimuli of a needle.
或者被针的刺穿刺激到 就会猛烈地拍打
However, this may simply be an innate response against a potential sting
然而 这可能是一种与生俱来的防御反应
from parasitoid wasps that are attempting to lay their eggs inside them,
用以抵御拟寄主黄蜂在卵内产卵时可能造成的刺痛
and exhibiting such an avoidant behaviour
表现出这种回避行为
will increase the larva’s survival by reducing their risk of being parasitised.
会降低幼虫被寄生的风险 从而增加幼虫的存活率
Therefore, one could expect such a behaviour to evolve and become fixed.
因此 人们期望这种行为会进化并变得固定
However, this does not necessarily mean that
然而 这并不一定就意味着
the larvae is distressed or experiencing pain in the same manner as we may do,
幼虫很痛苦 抑或和我们经历痛苦的方式相同
but is rather performing a reflex.
而是一种反射的体现
Alie: Likewise, there’s been inconclusive research indicating that lobsters and other crustaceans,
Alie: 同样地 没有确凿的研究表明龙虾和其他甲壳类动物
which are phylogenetically close to insects, may experience pain.
可能会经历痛苦 虽然它们在系统发育上都与昆虫接近
They have opioid peptides,
它们都含有阿片肽
which mediate pain responses in vertebrates,
可以介导脊椎动物的疼痛反应
and display certain aversive responses such as flicking their telson when being boiled alive.
并表现出某些令人厌恶的反应 比如说被活煮的时候摆动尾节
The truth is we do not know conclusively
事实上我们并不确定
whether they do experience pain or not,
它们是否会经历疼痛
but in Switzerland they elected to legislate for
但在瑞士 他们立法规定
lobsters to be stunned or knocked out prior to boiling them.
龙虾在被煮之前要先将其打昏或者击晕
Inés: And regardless of whether an organism experiences pain
Inés: 不管有机体是否和我们一样
in the same manner as we do or not,
以同样的方式经历疼痛
I will always advocate for treating living organisms around us with respect.
我会一直提倡尊重我们周围的生物体
We believe that torturing or mutilating animals
我们认为为了娱乐
for entertainment or because we expect them to be suffering
或因为我们希望它们受苦而虐待或残害动物
is still sadistic behaviour due to the intent behind our actions,
不管受影响的有机体是否感觉到疼痛 鉴于我们行为背后的意图
regardless of whether the organism affected is experiencing pain or not.
这些都依然属于虐待行为
In any case, I do hope we’ve been able to provide further insight into the complexity
任何情况下 我都希望我们能进一步挖掘问题背后的复杂性:
behind this question – insects probably don’t experience pain,
昆虫可能不会感到疼痛
but due to the very nature of pain itself,
但由于痛觉本身的性质
we might never know for sure!
我们可能永远都无法确定!
I’m also curious to know what do you think about this topic?
我也很想知道你对这个问题的看法
Also, given you’ve made it this far
而且 你都看到这儿了
I take it you’re interested in this type of question
我想你对这类问题很感兴趣
which means that you should go check out
那你应该去看看
the video we made over on Neurotransmissions’ channel,
我们在神经传递频道录制的视频
which is all about whether insects have brains or not –
全都是有关昆虫是否有大脑的内容
I mean, what even is
我说 到底是什么
and isn’t a brain?!
难道不是大脑嘛?
So for more cerebral content,
想要了解更多大脑方面的内容
go head over there and please let us know what your brain thinks about it.
去看看吧 让我们知道你的大脑是怎么想的
And as always, thank you so much for watching us
谢谢观看我们的节目
and I’ll see you in the next one. Bye!
下次再见 拜!
Alie: bye!
Alie: 拜!
Inés:claps
Iné: 鼓掌
[Channel art & Animation: Caro Waro & Cristina de Manuel]
[艺术与动画频道:Caro Waro & Cristina de Manuel]
[Music by Thastor & CryoSleepKitten][Scripting and Hosting by Alie Caldwell (Neurotransmissions)
[音乐: Thastor 和 CryoSleepKitten][脚本和主持:Alie Caldwell(神经传递) 和Inés Dawson]
and Inés Dawson] [Subtitled by {your name} into {language}]
[字幕:{your name}译成{your name}]

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视频概述

什么是痛觉?昆虫也有痛觉吗?昆虫感知痛觉的方式和我们一样吗?好奇的话,就来看看吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5C68yZmWpKo

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