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是否是眼镜破坏了你的视力 – 译学馆
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是否是眼镜破坏了你的视力

Do Glasses Ruin Your Eyesight?

如果你是像我一样的“四眼仔”你应该听说过戴眼镜会对你的视力有所损害
If you’re a four-eyes like me, you may have heard that wearing eyeglasses will ruin your eyesight.
在过去的时间里 普遍的想法是 眼睛里那些伸展你眼睛中的晶状体的肌肉没有
Over time, the thinking goes, the eye muscles that stretch the lens of your eye aren’t
足够多地利用到 所以它们变弱了然后你就不断需要越来越强的矫正
worked out as much, so they get weaker, and you keep needing stronger and stronger prescriptions
来看得更清楚
to see clearly.
眼镜会损伤你的视力是个十分愚蠢的想法
The idea that glasses hurt your vision is a super myth.
因为眼镜根本就不是那样起作用的
Because that’s not how glasses work.
大多数视力问题都是因为眼球前后径过长或过短产生的
Most vision problems occur because the eyeball is either too long or too short, causing the
造成眼角膜和晶状体弯曲或将光线折射到视网膜的过于前方或后方
cornea and lens to bend, or refract the light either too far in front or behind the retina,
使你的视力变得模糊
giving you blurry vision.
如果你的眼球前后径过长 而且光线聚焦到了你视网膜的前方 你就近视了
If your eyeball is too long, and light is focused in front of your retina, you’re nearsighted,
于是你能看清近处的东西不过要看远处的东西就会比较费力
or myopic, and you can see things up close but struggle with things in the distance.
如果太短 光线就会聚焦到视网膜后方你就会远视
If it’s too short, and light is focused behind the retina, you’re farsighted, and
你可以阅读半条街以外的指示牌不过你会觉得读就摆在面前的东西
you can read that sign halfway down the street, but have trouble reading what’s right in
较为吃力
front of you.
你的眼部肌肉可以让晶状体弯曲多一点或少一点去尝试将光线聚焦到合适的地方
Your eye muscles can bend the lens more or less to try and focus light onto the right place.
不过那些眼部肌肉仅仅只能适当地收缩或松弛来适应变形的眼睛
But those muscles can only contract or relax so much to accommodate squat or oblong eyes.
所以虚弱的眼部肌肉不是你视力差的原因
So, weak eye muscles aren’t why you have bad eyesight.
如果这就是原因我们就都应该活动眼睛来治好我们的差视力
If that were the case, we’d all be doing eye exercises to cure our poor vision.
眼镜只是做了正常形状的眼球能做的事情让进入眼睛的光线能正好聚焦
Glasses simply do what properly shaped eyeballs do, which is to make it possible to focus
到视网膜上 使你看到清晰的图像
the light that’s coming into your eye directly onto the retina, allowing you to see crisp images.
它们对你的眼部肌肉起到的唯一作用是减轻其过多的负担
The only effect they may have on your eye muscles is reducing excessive strain on them.
但是还是有一段时间医生们认为眼镜能起更大的作用
There was a time, though, when doctors thought eyeglasses could do more.
好几十年 验光师们普遍认为不应该给近视儿童能完全矫正他们视力的眼镜
For decades, optometrists purposely prescribed glasses for nearsighted kids that didn’t
因为他们认为这可以使他们的视力不再变差
fully correct their vision, because they thought it would keep their eyesight from getting worse.
这是因为 对于儿童来说 眼睛还在发育而且通常比
That’s because, in children, the eye is still growing, and usually gets longer as
脑壳要发育得更慢
it grows in the skull.
对于患近视的儿童来说 这会使他们近视加深
In kids who are nearsighted, this could make myopia worse.
而且医生们认为彻底恢复远处的视力会让儿童的眼球前后径更长
And doctors thought that fully restoring distance vision could make kids’ eyes grow even longer,
因此他们试图通过看近处的东西来抵消晶状体的矫正
as they tried to compensate to see things up close through corrective lenses.
所以医生们不给他们足够的治疗认为这样能防止眼球前后径过于延长
So doctors under-prescribed, thinking that would keep the eyes from elongating as much.
不过在2002年 一个临床试验对此提出了疑问
But in 2002, a clinical trial called that into question.
两年以后 那些被给到度数更浅的镜片的儿童事实上最终视力更差
After two years, kids who were given weaker lenses actually ended up with worse vision.
这个结果十分惊人以至于研究者们不得不停止他们早期根据处方判断的研究
The results were so striking that the researchers had to stop the study early due to ethical concerns.
接下来的研究不能总是找到像这样强的一个关于度数不够的眼镜的消极影响
Subsequent studies haven’t always found such a strong negative effect of subpar glasses,
不过也没有证据证明校正不足有所帮助而且验光师很大程度上停止了
but there’s no evidence that undercorrection helps, and optometrists have largely stopped
这种试验
the practice.
所以眼镜不会损害你的视力——如果有什么影响 那就是它们会防止其变差
So glasses won’t ruin your vision — if anything, they may prevent it from getting worse.
而且 是的随着时间的推移你可能会需要更强的矫正
And, yeah, you might need stronger prescriptions as time goes by.
因为 随着你年龄的增长你眼睛的晶状体变得更硬 使它们改变焦距
Because, as you age, the lenses of your eyes get stiffer, making it harder for them to
变得更难
change focus.
不过这不是你的眼镜的问题
But it’s not your glasses’ fault.
所以 继续戴着它们吧
So, keep wearing them.
因为他们帮助你看的更清晰
Because they help you see stuff.
而且看起来也很酷!
And also just look cool!
谢谢所有我们在众酬网站上的赞助人他们很可能有优于平均水平的
Thanks to all of our patrons on Patreon, who probably have a higher than average number
矫正镜片
of corrective lenses among them.
你对这个视频的支持是件很棒的事情能让世界上的所有人都能免费取得这个
You’re great for supporting this so that everybody in the world can get it for free.
如果你想看更多我们的节目而且只想用与钱无关的方式帮助我们 你可以登录
If you want to get more SciShow and just want to help us out without money, you can go to
这个网址来订阅
youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.
我们很欣赏这种行为哟
We appreciate that.
而且……你可以在订阅盒里获得我们的节目!
And also…you get SciShow in your subscription box!

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视频概述

眼镜是否破坏了你的视力的?很多人对此各执一词,且来看看历史上的有关人士都是如何看待的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

S.C

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c2ReCCjCdyI

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