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酒量是基因决定的

Do Genes Affect How Much Alcohol We Can Consume? | Horizon: The Truth About Alcohol | Earth Lab

Hi, guys.
嗨 伙计们
Dr. Brown studies the genetics of alcoholic liver disease.
布朗医生研究酒精性肝病的遗传学
We can clearly explain these three different experiences of alcohol
我们可以在遗传变异的基础上详细地解释
on the basis of genetic variation.
这三种不同的分解酒精的例子
That’s because the enzymes that break down alcohol in our bodies
因为我们身体里分解酒精的酶
are determined by our genes.
是由我们的基因决定的
Alcohol is first converted into a chemical called acetaldehyde,
酒精先转化成一种叫做乙醛的化学物质
which becomes toxic at high concentrations.
而乙醛处于高浓度时是有毒的
The acetaldehyde is then broken down mainly in the liver
接着它主要在肝脏
by second enzymes into carbon dioxide and water.
被第二种酶分解成二氧化碳和水
These can be eliminated from the body.
这些可以被排出身体
So, we got the results.
所以我们有了结果
Alice and Joe, you guys have the same variant.
爱丽丝和乔 你们有相同的变体
And you are different to Glenn.
但你们和格伦是不一样的
So, you guys do not get rid of the alcohol as quick.
所以你们不会很快地将酒精排出体外
65% of Eastern Asians and 5% of the Europeans have the genes
65%的东方亚洲人和5%的欧洲人
that code for the slow metabolising enzyme at this first stage,
有形成第一阶段慢代谢酶的基因
meaning that alcohol stays in their systems for longer.
意思是酒精会在这类人的身体系统待较长时间
But then we do see a difference in this second enzyme
但接着我们在第二阶段确实能看出不同
that gets rid of the toxic byproduct of the alcohol, the acetaldehyde.
这个酶会消除酒精的有毒副产品 乙醛
And Alice you have a typical genetic profile for this,
而爱丽丝你就有这种典型的基因档案
so you get rid of it as fast as anyone else.
所以你和其他人一样快地消除乙醛
But Joe, this is where you have a variation in your genes,
但是乔 这是你基因发生变化的地方
that means you don’t get rid of the acetaldehyde,
这意味着你不能消除乙醛
which is what we are seeing, right now, looking at you.
这就是我们现在知道的 看看你
This is living genetics. This is a great example.
这是个活遗传学 是一个很好的例子
And I think, you know, what Joe’s body is doing
你知道的 我认为乔的身体在做的就是
is telling him to stop drinking.
告诉他停止喝酒
What we see in people with that slow gene
我们在这些有慢基因的人身上看到的是
is that if they carry on drinking through it
如果在社会压力下他们继续喝酒
for social pressures, despite the sideeffects,
而不管这些副作用
then they are putting themselves more at risk of liver disease.
那么他们就更有可能患上肝病
And it’s thought that it’s this toxin,
人们认为是这种毒素
this acetaldehyde produced, as we break down alcohol,
这种我们分解酒精时乙醛产生的毒素
which makes Joe’s hangovers worse than most.
使乔的宿醉比多数人都严重
But in Glenn’s case, his enzymes work normally.
但是从格伦的情况 他的酶是正常工作的
So, he breaks down both the alcohol
所以 他能以典型的速率
and the acetaledhyde at the typical rate.
分解酒精和乙醛
So, if his enzymes are normal,
那么如果他的酶是正常的
how come he can drink much more alcohol
为什么他能比大多数的人喝更多的酒
than most people without feeling it?
而没有感觉呢?
There is an alternative pathway,
这有另一种途径
which actually breaks down alcohol by a different method.
就是真正分解酒精的是一种不同的方式
What’s different about this pathway is that it’s inducible,
这种途径的不同之处是它是可诱导的
there’s no limits to the amount of alcohol
它没有对酒精量的限制
that you can carry on passing down that pathway.
所以你能继续以那种途径分解酒精
This secondary metabolising pathway can be switched on
这第二种新陈代谢的途径会在我们
when we drink faster or in larger amounts than the body can cope with.
喝得更快或更多超出身体能应对的范围时被打开
It works like an overflow system.
它像溢流系统一样工作
This allows the additional alcohol to still pass through the liver.
这使得额外的酒精仍可以穿过肝脏
So, Glenn has induced or switched on
所以格伦倾向于或打开了
this second way of dealing with alcohol.
第二种分解酒精的途径
Correct. It goes from the gut to the liver, it’s broken down.
正确 它从肠道进入肝脏被分解
It never gets into the bloodstream.
它从来不会进入血液
So, it never has that effect on the brain,
所以它从来不会让大脑有醉酒的影响
which is effectively where we feel drunk.
而大脑正是我们感觉醉酒的地方
Does this mean the alcohol is less dangerous,
那这是否意味着酒精的危险性较低
in terms of the effects on Glenn’s liver than it would be
依据酒精对格伦肝脏的影响
for someone who doesn’t drink that often or that regularly?
比对那些不经常喝酒的人的影响小
Absolutely not.
肯定不是的
Okay, the alcohol is still being broken down by the liver,
酒精仍在被肝脏分解
and a breakdown products of the alcohol
而酒精分解的产物
are what’s causing the damage to the liver tissue.
是会造成肝脏组织损伤的

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视频概述

为什么有人喝不了酒,有的人却可以喝很多酒甚至不会觉得醉?视频介绍了基因是怎么决定酒量的

听录译者

教瑜伽的Diana

翻译译者

果松松

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LcNxlwy0pY

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