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苍蝇会毁了你的户外午餐吗?

Do Flies Totally Spoil Your Picnic Lunch?

This episode is sponsored by Wren,
本期视频由Wren赞助播出
a website with a monthly subscription
Wren是一个按月订阅的网站
that helps fund projects to combat the climate crisis.
资助应对气候危机的项目
Click the link in the description
点击简介中的链接
to learn more about how you can make a monthly contribution
了解更多关于如何按月捐款
to support projects like rainforest protection programs.
以支持雨林保护计划等项目的信息
[♪ INTRO]
[前奏]
Don’t you just hate it
你难道不讨厌吗
when you’re at a picnic, about to enjoy your food,
当你在野餐时 正要享用食物
when suddenly flies begin showing up,
突然苍蝇出现了
buzzing around and landing on your watermelon slices?
四处嗡嗡作响 落在切好的西瓜上
House flies in particular seem to know
家蝇似乎特别了解
the exact time to crash a picnic.
毁掉一次野餐的准确时机
But aside from being an annoyance,
但除了烦人以外
are flies also a food safety hazard?
苍蝇还会危害食品安全吗?
Because flies usually regurgitate some of their stomach contents
因为当苍蝇停在要吃的食物上时
when they land on something they plan on eating.
通常会反刍一些胃里的消化物
And, eww.
真恶心
So you might wonder if you need to toss that picnic lunch in the garbage
因此你可能会疑惑 若发现户外午餐爬满了苍蝇
if you find it infested with flies.
是否有必要将其丢进垃圾桶
And it’s complicated,
这问题很复杂
but it might depend on what’s next door to your picnic.
但可能取决于紧接着你的野餐会变成啥样
House flies are just one of many fly species
家蝇只是许多种停在食物上时
that regurgitate their stomach contents upon landing.
会反刍胃内消化物的蝇类之一
And there are multiple reasons why flies do this.
苍蝇这样做有多种原因
First, flies have no teeth.
首先 苍蝇没有牙齿
They just have a straw-shaped mouth that they use to slurp their food.
它们有一个用于进食的舔吸式口器
But first they have to make their food slurpable.
但首先它们得让食物变得可以被吸食
So, when they land,
因此 停下来时
they secrete a bit of digestive juices onto their food,
为了分解食物 它们会分泌
in order to break it down.
一些消化液到食物上
This works in a similar way to our saliva,
这与人类唾液的工作原理相似
which contains enzymes to help break down our food as we chew.
唾液中含有咀嚼时帮助分解食物的酶
The difference is, flies rely on the digestive juices in their stomachs
不同之处在于 苍蝇依靠胃中的消化液
to do the chewing for them.
代替它们咀嚼的过程
Once it’s been liquified,
一旦食物被液化
the flies are able to slurp up the food with their spongy mouth.
苍蝇就能用柔软吸水的口器进食
YUM.
美味
Second, flies might regurgitate some of their food
第二 为了给更多食物腾出空间
in order to make room for more food.
苍蝇可能会反刍部分食物
That regurgitated food hangs as a little bubble
这些反刍的食物就像一个小气泡
from their straw-like mouth,
挂在舔吸式口器边
which allows moisture to gradually evaporate.
让水分逐渐蒸发
Then they slurp it back up in its now more concentrated form,
接着 它们将现下更浓缩的食物再吸回去
making more space in their stomachs for more food.
从而在胃中腾出更多空间来容纳更多食物
Finally, the act of evaporating some of the liquid in their food
最后 蒸发食物中部分液体的行为
also helps remove heat from the flies’ bodies.
也有助于带走苍蝇体内的热量
With all that said, the real danger might lie with their feet,
尽管如此 真正的危险可能在于它们的脚
not their mouths.
而不是口器
Because while a fly might not regurgitate its food immediately upon touching down,
因为苍蝇停下后或许不会立马反刍食物
the rest of the fly isn’t exactly sanitary.
但它的其余部分不太卫生
Flies spend time on rotting food, decomposing animals, and feces.
苍蝇会停在腐烂的食物 动物和粪便上
And these can be sources of disease.
而这些可能是疾病之源
E. coli, typhoid, and cholera are among the worst cases.
其中大肠杆菌 伤寒和霍乱属于最严重的病例
Lab studies have found flies are able to pick up and transfer bacteria
实验室研究发现 即使仅在短时间内接触表面
even if they are only in contact with a surface for a short period of time.
苍蝇也能够带走并转移细菌
And in many countries, there are regulations in place that limit
在许多国家 已有规定限制
how close animal breeding facilities can be in relation to food processing facilities.
动物养殖场与食品加工厂之间的距离
Because those facilities are a great source of flies,
因为养殖场是苍蝇的重要来源
and the research shows that more flies equals more bacteria.
研究表明 苍蝇越多导致细菌越多
That said, it’s actually hard to say how those lab numbers
尽管如此 事实上很难说这些实验室数据如何
translate into real-life contamination of your food.
应用于现实生活中的食物污染
So, if several flies are hanging around on your food,
因此 如果有几只苍蝇在你的食物上爬来爬去
you might want to weigh the risks of getting sick
你可能要在患病的风险
against the rewards of finishing up that sandwich you were munching on.
和大口吃完三明治的愉悦之间仔细权衡了
Consider covering up your food
如果你要离开你的食物一段时间
if you’re going to be away from it for a while,
考虑把它盖起来
and packing a fly swatter on your next picnic.
下次野餐时带上苍蝇拍
And maybe don’t set up right next to a petting zoo
或许不要在爱畜动物园
or other potential source of contamination that flies could bring in.
或其他有苍蝇的潜在污染源旁边就餐
In the end, though, we looked into it
尽管最终 我们做了调查
and our research hasn’t turned up much in the way of actual illness
我们的研究并未发现太多
resulting from flies landing on a picnic.
苍蝇停在野餐上所导致的实际病例
It’s your call really, but a couple of flies on your plate
这事实上取决于你 但盘中的几只苍蝇
are probably more a nuisance than a public health threat.
可能更讨人嫌 而非公共健康威胁
So, could you pass the watermelon?
所以 你能把西瓜递给我吗?
In contrast, an unequivocally serious public health threat is the climate crisis.
相反 气候危机无疑是一个严重的公共健康威胁
That’s why Wren, a website that helps fund projects that combat the climate crisis,
这就是Wren 一个资助应对气候危机项目的网站
is currently raising funds to provide clean burning fuel and cookstoves
目前正在筹集资金 为乌干达难民
for refugees in Uganda.
提供清洁燃料和炉灶的原因
This project will help humans and nature
这一项目将帮助人与自然
by providing over 1 million refugees with a clean cooking fuel
为100多万难民提供清洁的烹饪燃料
and preventing thousands of acres of land from deforestation per year.
阻止每年数千英亩土地的森林砍伐
Once you signup to make a monthly contribution to projects like this one,
一旦注册后按月为此类项目捐款
you’ll receive monthly updates on their progress.
每月你将收到项目的最新进展
You’ll get to see the good you’re doing
你会看到自己所行之善举
and what your money is spent on.
以及自己的钱用在了什么地方
You can start helping today by learning more at Wren.co.
在Wren网站上了解更多详情 你可以从今天开始助力
But you won’t be alone in this effort.
但你并不是一个人在努力
We’ve partnered with Wren
我们已与Wren合作
to plant 10 additional trees for the first 100 people
为使用简介下方推荐链接注册的
who sign up using the referral link in the description down below!
前100人再种10棵树!
Thank you to Wren for supporting this SciShow video
感谢Wren支持本期《科学秀》视频
and thank you for watching!
感谢收看!
[♪ OUTRO]
[片尾曲]

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视频概述

本视频介绍了苍蝇如何进食,让我们一起来看看苍蝇是否会污染我们的食物,成为致病源。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Kris

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zElRSrylyHw

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