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鱼会做梦吗?

Do Fish Dream?

鱼会做梦吗?
It’s easy to look at a sleeping dog,
我们看到一只睡着的狗狗
legs twitching as she snoozes,
打盹时腿在抽搐
and imagine she’s dreaming of chasing rabbits.
很可能会觉得它梦到了自己在追赶兔子
And it’s only natural for us humans to wonder if other animals dream.
我们自然会去想 其他动物是否也会做梦
But dogs’ brains are relatively similar to ours.
相对来说 狗狗的大脑和人脑很相似
What about something way more different from us?
那么其他和人类相差甚远的动物呢?
Say, a fish?
比如鱼?
We don’t yet know exactly why our brains
我们还不知道究竟为什么
race through fantastical or scary scenarios at night,
大脑会在夜里闪现奇幻或惊悚的场景
but there are plenty of hypotheses.
不过 我们有很多猜测
Dreams may be ways for our brains to process emotions
梦境可能是大脑处理情绪和记忆的方式
or memories, or to prepare for new scenarios.
或是大脑在为可能发生的事做准备
Human sleep occurs in a series of cycles.
人的睡眠可以分为好几个周期
We cycle through a series of phases over the course of the night,
夜里的每一个周期又包含几个阶段
which can take anywhere from 70 to 120 minutes.
一个周期大概是70到120分钟
Most dreams occur during a phase called rapid eye movement, or REM.
多数梦境发生在快速眼动(REM)睡眠阶段
As you might imagine, this type of sleep is characterized by
你应该能想到 这个睡眠期的特点是
rapid movements of our eyes.
眼球的快速转动
It’s possible these eye movements
我们会快速转动眼球
are connected to our dreams themselves.
这很可能跟做的梦有关
Researchers have suggested that each flick of the eye may correlate
研究人员认为 眼球的每一次运动
with a new image being encountered in a dream.
很可能都是因为梦中出现了新的情景
But do other animals experience sleep the way we do?
但其他动物也有人类这种睡眠周期吗?
Well, we can’t exactly ask them, but we sure are curious.
它们回答不了 但我们真的很好奇
And this fascination has led us
这种好奇心促使人们
to study sleep in fish as far back as 1913.
早在1913年就开始研究鱼类的睡眠
That study set out behavioral criteria for fish sleep.
该研究列出了鱼类睡眠时的行为特征
In zebrafish, that means things like immobility,
斑马鱼睡觉时不会动
a preferred sleeping location,
有固定的睡眠地点
and a reduced respiratory rate.
睡眠期间呼吸频率降低
But it wasn’t until a 2019 study that anyone defined what was happening
不过直到2019年 才有研究解释了
inside the brains of fish while they sleep.
鱼在睡觉时 大脑所进行的活动
And it took so long because it’s hard to do!
这是很难做到的 所以才用了这么久!
One way to look inside human brains, including during sleep,
有一种方法可以观察人类睡眠期间大脑的活动
is using an instrument called an electroencephalogram, or EEG.
就是利用脑电图仪器(EEG)
This typically measures activity in a region of the brain called the neocortex.
该仪器一般用于测量大脑中新皮质区域的活动情况
Fish don’t have a neocortex.
鱼没有新皮质区域
However, zebrafish do have something similar,
然而 斑马鱼却有类似的结构
called the dorsal pallium,
叫做背侧大脑皮层
which the researchers targeted in this study.
相关人员针对这个结构做了研究
They took advantage of the fact that the young zebrafish are see-through.
小斑马鱼是透明的 这为研究提供了便利
You can see straight into their brains!
你能直接看到它们的大脑!
They inserted a gene into the fish that
他们在鱼体内植入了一种基因
caused their neurons to glow when active.
它可以使鱼的神经元在活动时发光
Specifically, it gives off light in response to calcium.
具体来讲 是钙离子使鱼发光
Since calcium levels change as neurons send their signals,
钙离子浓度会随着神经元发出的信号而改变
this allowed the researchers to watch
因此研究人员能够在鱼睡着的时候
brain activity while the fish slept.
观察它们大脑的活动
Their results showed that like humans,
研究结果表明 和人类一样
fish cycle through sleep patterns.
鱼的睡眠也是有周期的
The researchers saw two main sleep states:
研究人员发现了鱼的两种睡眠状态:
slow bursting sleep and propagating wave sleep.
缓慢爆发睡眠和波传播睡眠
And propagating wave sleep showed a number of similarities
尽管鱼的眼球不会动 但波传播睡眠
to our own REM phase, though the fish’s eyes stayed still.
和人类的快速眼动睡眠仍有诸多相似之处
The researchers suggested these similar patterns of sleep activity
研究人员认为 这种相似的睡眠活动模式
could have evolved before fish and humans split,
至少在4.5亿年前就存在了
more than 450 million years ago.
那时候人和鱼还没有“分道扬镳”
So, this doesn’t prove that fish can dream,
这不能证明鱼类会做梦
but it suggests that they do go through
只是说明了鱼类的睡眠
something similar to our own dream-filled REM sleep.
跟人类梦境连连的REM睡眠是很相似的
So, that means fish dreams are a possibility!
也就是说 鱼有可能会做梦!
Thanks to our patron Olan Kenny for asking this question.
感谢赞助者Olan Kenny提出这个话题
Our patrons submit and vote on questions
我们的赞助人提出并投票选出
that eventually get made into episodes like this one!
最后能做成今天这种视频的话题
So, if you want to be a part of that process,
如果你也想参与进来
or just want to help SciShow
或者只是想和《科学秀》一起
keep making free educational videos for everyone to enjoy,
为大家制作免费的科普视频
you can check out patreon.com/scishow.
请登录patreon.com/scishow

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视频概述

人类会做梦,狗狗也会,这个视频将告诉大家鱼类有没有可能会做梦。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员VV

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGI5GD0LtO0

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