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动物会悼念死者吗?

Do Animals Mourn Their Dead?

《科学秀》
在线调查:动物会哀悼死者吗
其他动物可能比你想象的还要像人类
Other animals are more like us than you might expect.
某些动物可以识别面部或使用工具
Some can recognize faces or use tools,
一只小狗摇尾巴就像在表达某种情感
and a puppy wagging its tail seems like it’s showing some sort of emotion.
或许你看过大象对死去的同类表现怪异的视频
Or maybe you’ve seen videos of elephants reacting strangely to dead herd members,
几乎像在哀悼死者
almost like they’re mourning.
但我们很难知道它们真正在做什么以及原因
But it’s hard for us to know what they’re really doing, and why.
我们无法了解动物是否理解死亡或怎么理解
We can’t know if or how animals understand death,
但有些人类学家提出一种基本的方法来定义悲伤:
but some anthropologists have come up with a basic way to define grief:
生物对它所认识的死者表现出行为上的改变
it’s a change in behavior in living creatures that knew the deceased.
这是定义人类悲伤的一种方法
And while this is one way to define grief in humans,
它对那些试图理解 非人类动物悲伤的科学家而言
it’s also a useful guideline for scientists who are trying to
也是一项有用的参考
understand grief in nonhuman animals.
现在 那些研究人员正在寻找
Now, these researchers are looking for behavioral changes
除检查尸体或摒弃尸体外的行为变化
that go beyond checking out or getting rid of a corpse,
例如一只动物改变了它的日常习惯
such as an animal switching up its daily routine
或表现出看上去很悲伤的行为
or showing what looks like distress.
某些动物忙忙碌碌
Some animals are all busyness,
我们还没发现它们表现出丝毫悲伤的迹象
and we haven’t noticed any signs of grief from them.
比如 狮子偶尔会吃掉死去的同伴
Lions, for example, will casually eat their dead companions
而非拒绝这轻松得来的卡路里
rather than pass up some easy calories.
对蜜蜂 裸鼹鼠之类的群居动物而言
And for animals like bees and naked mole rats that live in dense colonies,
卫生情况是个大问题
hygiene is a big concern.
这类动物倾向于快速处理掉尸体
These species tend to quickly dispose of dead bodies,
或至少把尸体隔开来
or at least seal them away from the living,
以免遭受腐烂和疾病困扰
to avoid exposure to decay and disease.
鸦科家族的成员 乌鸦和松鸦
Crows and jays, part of a bird family called corvids,
像是用一种吵闹的方式聚集在死去的同伴附近
gather near dead flockmates in what can almost look like a noisy way.
但有些鸟类学家认为
But some ornithologists think
它们可能只是在警告其它幸存者
that they might just be alerting other survivors
并研究它们怎么死的 以便了解可能的威胁
and investigating how their companion died, to learn about possible threats.
对死亡有如此多不同的反应
With so many different responses to death,
所以很难说哪些物种可能会超越实用主义并体验悲伤
it can be hard to tell which species might go beyond pragmatism and experience grief.
但有些智商较高的哺乳动物可能会展示悲伤
But some of the likely suspects are mammals known for their intelligence.
已有记录证明 大象对同类的遗体有强烈的反应
Elephants have been documented to show strong reactions to the remains of their dead,
但会无视其他大部分动物的遗体
while ignoring the bodies of most other animals.
大象可能会温柔地触摸并研究同伴遗体
They may gently touch and investigate an elephant corpse,
陪伴它几天 或者拽出象牙
stay with it for days, or detach the tusks
把它们搬到半英里远的地方
and carry them up to a half a mile away.
还有些大象把死者用泥土和植物埋起来的例子
There are even some cases where elephants covered their dead with dirt and plant matter.
这些都不是正常的行为
And none of this is really normal behavior.
据观察 大象 黑猩猩 狒狒 海豚都会长时间携带已夭折的幼崽
Elephants, apes, baboons, and dolphins have all been observed carrying dead infants for days,
即使幼崽开始腐烂
even as they start to decay.
事实上 海豚以具有攻击性地看护尸体而闻名
In fact, dolphins have been known to guard carcasses so aggressively
它们不让研究人员靠近尸体
that they’ve kept researchers from getting close.
圈养的黑猩猩对同伴的死亡做出的反应是变得安静且顺从
Captive chimpanzees have reacted to the death of a group member by becoming quiet and subdued,
或者疯狂地喊叫 这有点像悲痛(的表现)
or vocalizing frantically, Which kind of seems like distress.
猴子和狐猴也被发现会发出独特的声音
And monkeys and lemurs have also been observed making distinct sounds,
并多次查看死者
and visiting a dead body many times.
有时动物对死者的反应方式让人联想到我们自己
So sometimes the ways in which animals react to death remind us of, well, us.
有时候它们不会
And sometimes they don’t.
研究其它动物的情绪以及智力之类的事很棘手
It’s tricky to study things like emotion and intelligence in other animals.
但是人类不是唯一能注意到某人从自己生活中消失的物种
But it’s not too surprising that humans aren’t the only species
这并不让人惊讶
who notice when someone vanishes from our lives.
感谢Patreon平台的观众提问
Thanks to our Patreon patrons for asking!
如果你想更多的了解各种各样的动物
If you want to learn more about all kinds of animals,
从豪猪到长尾小鹦鹉
from porcupines to parakeets,
收看我们在YouTube上的姐妹频道《动物奇观》
check out our sister channel Animal Wonders over at youtube.com
或《蒙大拿动物奇观》
slash Animal Wonders Montana.
别忘了收看及订阅YouTube上的《科学秀》
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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视频概述

人类会因为某人的离去而感到悲伤,那么动物也会哀悼死去的同类吗?它们的表现形式又是什么样的?一起来了解吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

兰代

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7LK2kKv2IE

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