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你对手机上瘾了吗?

Digital Addiction: How Half the Developed World Got Hooked on the Internet | Adam Alter

行为性成瘾和物质性成瘾在很多方面都比较相似 相对而言 行为性成瘾研究起步
Behavioral addiction is a lot like substance addiction in a lot of ways, but it’s much
也较晚
newer.
和字面意思一样 物质性成瘾涉及到成瘾性物质的摄入 往往在短时间内
So substance addiction obviously involves the ingestion of a substance, and in the short-term
会让人感觉很好 但会带来很多方面的长期性危害
that feels good, and in the long-term it harms your well being in some respects.
这些危害有生理上的 也有心理上的 它们会扰乱你的社交 甚至会让你
It can be physiological, it can be psychological, it can harm your social life, it can cause
倾家荡产 可以说是有百害而无一利
you to spend too much money, it can have a lot of negative effects on your life.
行为性成瘾和物质性成瘾总体来讲比较类似 然而最大的区别在于行为性成瘾并不
Behavioral addiction is similar; the big difference though is that behavioral addiction does not
涉及成瘾性物质的摄入 相对而言 行为性成瘾现象出现更晚 被研究也更晚
involve the ingestion of a substance, and it’s much newer, it’s a much more recent phenomenon.
人们几千年前就意识到物质性成瘾现象的存在
So substance addiction has been around for a very long time, by some accounts for many
然而行为性成瘾
thousands of years, but there weren’t behaviors around that were compelling enough to rise
直到最近才引起了人们的重视
to the level of addiction until quite recently.
原因在于 所谓行为性成瘾 是指
And the reason is that, for them to be addictive, basically what has to happen is there’s a
一些能给人带来舒适感或兴奋感的短期强迫性行为
behavior that you enjoy doing in the short-term that you do compulsively.
并且保持这种短期强迫行为会给生活
So you keep returning to it over and over again, but then in the long-term it harms
带来长期危害
your well-being.
同样 这种长期危害可能影响许多方面 包括对社交 开销
And it can, again, harm your well-being in lots of different respects, social, financial,
生理上和心理上的危害
physical, psychological.
我认为 人们之所以会患上这种新型成瘾症 原因主要在于两个方面
And I think the reason why we’ve got these new forms of addiction, there are two main
首先 当代科技已经大大不同于以往
reasons: The first one is that technology is much more sophisticated and advanced than
回首短短20年间 技术已经变得非常复杂和先进
it was even 20 years ago.
这也使得从虚拟系统中获取回报变成了可能
You’re able to deliver the kinds of rewards that you need for a system to be addictive.
所以本质上 人们是在寻找一种无法预测的快速
So basically what people are looking for is unpredictability and rapid feedback of either
回报(包括负面反馈) 实际上 人们需要这种混合
rewards (or if it’s negative then negative experiences), and you actually need that mix
正面和负面回报的体验
of positive and negative feedback.
比如 当你在网上发个帖 有时你会获得很多
Just as, for example, when you post something online, sometimes you’re going to get a lot
赞 有时不会 正是这种不确定性让人难以割舍
of hits, sometimes you aren’t, and it’s that unpredictability that we find so compelling.
为了快速地传达这种回报
You need to be able to deliver those rewards really rapidly, and for that you need the
网络连接的速度需要跟得上 正是技术的高度发达使之成为了可能
Internet with the right kind of bandwidth to be able to deliver those rewards.
另一个原因我认为是公司们在这件事情上表现的十分狡猾
The other thing that I think is happened is that companies are much savvier about this.
他们雇佣了行为学家去指导设计传媒方式 包括如何设计
There are employee behavioral experts to tell them how to design their media, how to design
合适的媒介去传播 包括智能手机 平板电脑 智能手表之类的
the vehicles that deliver those media, smart phones, iPads, smart watches, things like
传播方式
that.
正因如此 我认为他们制造的产品表现的越来越吸引人
And for that reason I think they are delivering products to us that are harder for us to resist.
他们集成了足够的功能以至于人们真的难以抗拒
They’ve got enough features built in that we find to be pretty hard to resist, and then
人们最后就变得依赖于这些产品 某种程度上这种现象已经出现在半数的
we end up developing addictions to them, and by some counts that applies to about half
发达国家人口中 事实上 并不是电子设备本身使人上瘾
of the population of the developed world. It turns out that it’s not in addiction to the device itself.
而是电子设备传递内容的效果超乎想象地好 所以 当你玩手机停不下来并不是说你面对的屏幕这个硬件令你上瘾
It’s that the devices is just an incredibly effective way of delivering content.So when you’re addicted to a screen it’s not that the screen itself is something that you
而是它所提供的内容令你上瘾
can’t get enough of, it’s what it’s providing.
我觉得人们之所以钟情于智能手机所提供的信息 原因在于
I think one of the reasons while we’re so addicted to screens or to the content they
这些设备提供了一种随时随地的体验
provide is that they go with us wherever we go.
而这也是最近才出现的现象
And that’s relatively new.
回想八九十年代甚至二十一世纪初你玩游戏的时候
And so if you played video games in the ’80s or ’90s or even the early 2000’s they didn’t
你没法像现在这样走到哪玩到哪 尤其是那些
really go wherever you went as much as they do now, especially those games that were tied
网络游戏
into the Internet.
相对而言 那些PC独占游戏 你只能在电脑那里玩 至少并不会
Those were tied into your PC, you’d play where you were and you didn’t really leave with
离得太远
them as much.
当然 还有些便携式设备 不过相对来说它们都比较原始
You had some portable devices, but those were much more primitive.
而今天 你可以用iPhone随时随地和别人联系 玩游戏
Today with iPhones you can connect to other people on the go, you always have access to
发邮件 上网冲浪
games, you always have access to email, you always have access to the Internet, and you
刷社交网络 而这些媒介都是绝佳的内容载体
always have access to social media, and so they are great vehicles for providing the
你可以在任何时候想看就看
hits that you need when you need them.
通常地 人们在有某些心理需求时更加容易对某些东西成瘾
Basically we tend to develop addictions when we have a psychological need.
以及当我们感到无聊 孤独
And we get those whenever we’re bored, whenever we’re feeling a little bit lonely, whenever
迷茫 找不到自我
we’re not really sure what to do with ourselves next, whenever we don’t feel particularly
或者我们的努力并没有那么有效(并没有像想象中那样有用)的时候
efficacious (like we’re having an effect on the world that we’d like to be having), those
这些时刻 人们会想去寻找一种所谓的“成人奶嘴”
are the moments when you’re looking for what some people call the “adult pacifier”.
而智能手机就是这样一个完美的“奶嘴” 当你点亮
And smart phones tend to be a great adult pacifier because after those moments you turn
你的屏幕 划开解锁画面 你的烦恼也被划走了
on your screen, you swipe and you feel relaxed again.
这就是人们如何描述这种体验的
That’s how people describe the experience.
智能手机似乎就是这么一种绝妙的设备 能够提供人们需要的小刺激 而社交
So they tend to be excellent devices for delivering these small hits that we look for, and social
网络就是一个很好的例子
media is a great example.
大家都能感觉到 社交网络现在无时无刻伴随着我们
So social media obviously now travels with us.
曾几何时 社交网络也很大程度上被局限于桌面电脑平台 然而现在早已不是那种情况
It used to be confined to home computers to a large extent, but that’s no longer the case.
人们平均每天会花大约3个小时在智能手机上
And people spend about three hours a day on average using their smart phones, which is
这很值得我们深思
pretty staggering.
这三个小时已经占据了我们除了睡觉和工作之外的绝大多数时间
That’s a huge chunk of the day of the waking hours that we spend when we’re not at work.
而这3个小时仅仅是被用来不断地
What that means is they’re spending a lot of their time returning over and over again
刷推特 ins 脸书 Snapchat等等 人们之所以停不下来
to check Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat and so on, and they’re checking for a number
有一下几个原因
of things.
一方面这些东西是一个无底洞 你不停地刷新消息
One thing is that these media are bottomless, which means that you’re constantly checking
但你永远不可能刷完
for new information; there’s always something new to be kept up on.
另一方面 当你自己是发推者的时候 你会更想
The other thing is if you happen to be a poster of content, you’re very curious about getting
快点知道别人是不是同意你或者并不是对
rapid feedback as to whether people approve of that or they’re not particularly interested
你说的东西很感兴趣
in it.
所以我们会花大把的时间一遍一遍地强迫性地刷回复
So a lot of the time what we do is we return over and over again compulsively to see whether
去看是不是有很多的赞 就像我们发帖时所期待的那样
we’re getting the positive feedback that we seek when we post content.
而当我们发帖的时候 我们本质上是在试探整个社交群体
A lot of what we’re doing when we post content is basically testing the social waters, getting
是不是有和我们一样的三观 这种感觉对
a sense of whether people see the world the same way we do, which is very important to
我们人类来说是很重要的 也反应出他人是否对我们有认同感
us as humans, and also getting a sense of whether they approve of us.
社交认同感是非常重要的 但我们甚至愿意去冒得到负面反馈这个险
And social approval is really important, but we’re even willing to risk negative feedback,
是因为最差的是被别人忽视
because the worst thing that can happen to a human is to be ignored.
实际上 被放逐被忽视比得到负面反馈要难受的多
It’s actually far worse to be ostracized or ignored than it is to get negative feedback.
总而言之 正是因为我们现在有条件随时随地和数以亿计的人
So when you put all of that together the idea now that we have access to theoretically billions
发生联系 智能手机才变得这么容易令人上瘾
of people in the world at all times wherever we are makes smart phones addictive.
因为我们总是能得到我们想要的反馈
We can always get that feedback that we desire.

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视频概述

相对物质性成瘾,行为性成瘾是一个较新的名词,而我们生活中最能与之联系起来的就是现在大多数人抱着手机不放的现象。这个短视频从几个方面简要分析了人们对手机上瘾的原因,值得我们深思。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

GraphiCon-origamidance

审核员

知易行难

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NMq_MyOFtW8

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