行为性成瘾和物质性成瘾在很多方面都比较相似 相对而言 行为性成瘾研究起步
Behavioral addiction is a lot like substance addiction in a lot of ways, but it’s much
和字面意思一样 物质性成瘾涉及到成瘾性物质的摄入 往往在短时间内
So substance addiction obviously involves the ingestion of a substance, and in the short-term
that feels good, and in the long-term it harms your well being in some respects.
这些危害有生理上的 也有心理上的 它们会扰乱你的社交 甚至会让你
It can be physiological, it can be psychological, it can harm your social life, it can cause
you to spend too much money, it can have a lot of negative effects on your life.
Behavioral addiction is similar; the big difference though is that behavioral addiction does not
涉及成瘾性物质的摄入 相对而言 行为性成瘾现象出现更晚 被研究也更晚
involve the ingestion of a substance, and it’s much newer, it’s a much more recent phenomenon.
So substance addiction has been around for a very long time, by some accounts for many
thousands of years, but there weren’t behaviors around that were compelling enough to rise
to the level of addiction until quite recently.
原因在于 所谓行为性成瘾 是指
And the reason is that, for them to be addictive, basically what has to happen is there’s a
behavior that you enjoy doing in the short-term that you do compulsively.
So you keep returning to it over and over again, but then in the long-term it harms
同样 这种长期危害可能影响许多方面 包括对社交 开销
And it can, again, harm your well-being in lots of different respects, social, financial,
我认为 人们之所以会患上这种新型成瘾症 原因主要在于两个方面
And I think the reason why we’ve got these new forms of addiction, there are two main
reasons: The first one is that technology is much more sophisticated and advanced than
it was even 20 years ago.
You’re able to deliver the kinds of rewards that you need for a system to be addictive.
So basically what people are looking for is unpredictability and rapid feedback of either
回报（包括负面反馈） 实际上 人们需要这种混合
rewards (or if it’s negative then negative experiences), and you actually need that mix
of positive and negative feedback.
比如 当你在网上发个帖 有时你会获得很多
Just as, for example, when you post something online, sometimes you’re going to get a lot
赞 有时不会 正是这种不确定性让人难以割舍
of hits, sometimes you aren’t, and it’s that unpredictability that we find so compelling.
You need to be able to deliver those rewards really rapidly, and for that you need the
Internet with the right kind of bandwidth to be able to deliver those rewards.
The other thing that I think is happened is that companies are much savvier about this.
There are employee behavioral experts to tell them how to design their media, how to design
合适的媒介去传播 包括智能手机 平板电脑 智能手表之类的
the vehicles that deliver those media, smart phones, iPads, smart watches, things like
And for that reason I think they are delivering products to us that are harder for us to resist.
They’ve got enough features built in that we find to be pretty hard to resist, and then
we end up developing addictions to them, and by some counts that applies to about half
发达国家人口中 事实上 并不是电子设备本身使人上瘾
of the population of the developed world. It turns out that it’s not in addiction to the device itself.
而是电子设备传递内容的效果超乎想象地好 所以 当你玩手机停不下来并不是说你面对的屏幕这个硬件令你上瘾
It’s that the devices is just an incredibly effective way of delivering content.So when you’re addicted to a screen it’s not that the screen itself is something that you
can’t get enough of, it’s what it’s providing.
I think one of the reasons while we’re so addicted to screens or to the content they
provide is that they go with us wherever we go.
And that’s relatively new.
And so if you played video games in the ’80s or ’90s or even the early 2000’s they didn’t
really go wherever you went as much as they do now, especially those games that were tied
into the Internet.
相对而言 那些PC独占游戏 你只能在电脑那里玩 至少并不会
Those were tied into your PC, you’d play where you were and you didn’t really leave with
them as much.
当然 还有些便携式设备 不过相对来说它们都比较原始
You had some portable devices, but those were much more primitive.
而今天 你可以用iPhone随时随地和别人联系 玩游戏
Today with iPhones you can connect to other people on the go, you always have access to
games, you always have access to email, you always have access to the Internet, and you
always have access to social media, and so they are great vehicles for providing the
hits that you need when you need them.
Basically we tend to develop addictions when we have a psychological need.
And we get those whenever we’re bored, whenever we’re feeling a little bit lonely, whenever
we’re not really sure what to do with ourselves next, whenever we don’t feel particularly
efficacious (like we’re having an effect on the world that we’d like to be having), those
are the moments when you’re looking for what some people call the “adult pacifier”.
And smart phones tend to be a great adult pacifier because after those moments you turn
你的屏幕 划开解锁画面 你的烦恼也被划走了
on your screen, you swipe and you feel relaxed again.
That’s how people describe the experience.
智能手机似乎就是这么一种绝妙的设备 能够提供人们需要的小刺激 而社交
So they tend to be excellent devices for delivering these small hits that we look for, and social
media is a great example.
So social media obviously now travels with us.
曾几何时 社交网络也很大程度上被局限于桌面电脑平台 然而现在早已不是那种情况
It used to be confined to home computers to a large extent, but that’s no longer the case.
And people spend about three hours a day on average using their smart phones, which is
That’s a huge chunk of the day of the waking hours that we spend when we’re not at work.
What that means is they’re spending a lot of their time returning over and over again
刷推特 ins 脸书 Snapchat等等 人们之所以停不下来
to check Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat and so on, and they’re checking for a number
One thing is that these media are bottomless, which means that you’re constantly checking
for new information; there’s always something new to be kept up on.
另一方面 当你自己是发推者的时候 你会更想
The other thing is if you happen to be a poster of content, you’re very curious about getting
rapid feedback as to whether people approve of that or they’re not particularly interested
So a lot of the time what we do is we return over and over again compulsively to see whether
we’re getting the positive feedback that we seek when we post content.
A lot of what we’re doing when we post content is basically testing the social waters, getting
a sense of whether people see the world the same way we do, which is very important to
us as humans, and also getting a sense of whether they approve of us.
And social approval is really important, but we’re even willing to risk negative feedback,
because the worst thing that can happen to a human is to be ignored.
It’s actually far worse to be ostracized or ignored than it is to get negative feedback.
So when you put all of that together the idea now that we have access to theoretically billions
of people in the world at all times wherever we are makes smart phones addictive.
We can always get that feedback that we desire.
行为性成瘾和物质性成瘾在很多方面都比较相似 相对而言 行为性成瘾研究起步