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罗马人知道自己的帝国在衰落吗?

Did the Romans Know the Empire Was Falling?

《王侯将相》
476 anno domini, the year of the fall of Rome,
公元476年 罗马衰落
is one of the most well-known and most discussed dates of European history,
这一年也成为欧洲历史上最著名 讨论最多的一年
and yet probably one of the most overestimated
但这一年的象征意义
and misunderstood ones for what it has come to represent.
很可能也是被夸大和误读最深的
Rivers of ink have been devoted to why the Roman Empire fell,
关于罗马帝国衰落的原因 以及它是否真的衰落
and if it actually did.
已经有大量讨论
While the historiographical question of if and why it happened
尽管罗马是否衰落和为什么衰落的史学问题
continues to be debated to this day
一直到今天仍有讨论
and certainly merits attention,
也的确值得关注
we will not tackle the topic in this video.
但这不是本视频中探讨的主题
Instead, we will try to discern
我们要探究的主题是
how the men and women living in those times
生活在那个时代的人们
saw the changing of their institutions and culture,
如何看待他们所处的制度和文化的变迁
focusing specifically on the year 476,
我们会聚焦公元476这一年
and we will attempt to ask the question:
尝试解答这个问题:
in the eyes of a Roman citizen,
在罗马公民看来
did the Empire of Rome fall in 476?
公元476年 罗马帝国是否衰落了呢?
The Roman citizens were much less knowledgeable and informed
罗马公民远不如当下的现代人知识丰富
than the people of the modern age currently are,
也不如我们见多识广
and that is because we have access to platforms
这是因为我们能够接触到
like the one provided by the sponsor of this video Blinkist.
像本期视频赞助方Blinkist这样的平台
Blinkist is all about preserving and sharing knowledge
Blinkist以大忙人也能轻松理解的方式
by making it easily digestible even for the busiest among us.
聚焦于传播与分享知识
It takes the most interesting and relevant non-fictional books
它选择最为有趣也最为合适的非虚构作品
and turns them into 15-minute audios – blinks.
把它们制作成15分钟的音频 即blink
More than 3000 titles are already available
现在有三千多个条目可以收听
which means that you can learn on the go, learn fast,
也就是说 你能在繁忙间隙快速学习
and always improve your knowledge,
不管日程有多紧张
no matter how time-constrained you are.
都能一直学有所得
Blinkist titles range from Entrepreneurship to Philosophy,
Blinkist上的音频条目从创业学到哲学
from Psychology to Politics,
从心理学到政治学都有涉及
but most importantly for us,
但对我们来说最重要的是
there are hundreds of historical books that you can listen to!
里面有几百本历史书籍的音频可供收听
Imagine learning the most important facts of 4 books in just one hour!
想想看 你能在一小时内学到4本书的精华呢!
We recommend Why Don’t We Learn from History by Basil Liddell Hart,
我们推荐巴塞尔•李德哈特的著作《人类何以陷入战争》
so you can learn from history
读这本 你能吸取历史教训
and The Origins of Political Order by Francis Fukuyama
还推荐弗朗西斯•福山所著《政治秩序的起源》
to see how diverse political and social environments
以观察不同的政治和社会环境
allowed Europe to develop many different political systems!
如何在欧洲发展出这么多不同的政治体制!
New titles are added all the time!
新条目也在持续扩展中!
Support our channel and your growth –
快来支持我们的频道 赋能你的成长
get yourself premium access to knowledge –
抓住机会 探索优质的知识平台
the first 100 people to go to blinkist.com/kingsandgenerals
前100位登陆blinkist.com/kingsandgenerals的幸运儿
are going to get unlimited access for one week to try it out.
将获得一周的会员试用期 解锁一切内容
To put the year 476 and its events into context,
要讨论公元476年 以及发生在这一年的事件
we will first briefly summarize
我们将首先概述
the highs and lows of the Empire in its later years.
这一年之后罗马帝国的兴衰变迁
The Imperium began with two prosperous centuries
建立之初两百年 帝国日趋繁盛
which saw the Roman state reach its greatest territorial extent
领土范围达到极值
and achieve relative internal peace
经历了公元前1世纪一系列内战后
after the civil wars of the first century BC.
国内和平也基本实现
The first cracks in the system
塞维鲁王朝覆灭后
came following the end of the Severan dynasty,
罗马帝国体制出现首次动摇
which opened the crisis of the third century.
开启了三世纪危机
It lasted 50 years
危机持续的50年中
and saw decimating plagues,
瘟疫流行 人口大量死亡
a high rate of replacement of Emperors,
君主频繁易位
and the fracture of the Roman territorial integrity
罗马领土完整遭受重创
both to the west and to the east.
东西部均是如此
After a resurgence under Diocletian and the Constantine family,
戴克里先和数位君士坦丁皇帝重振罗马后
the Romans suffered a devastating defeat at Adrianople in 378,
378年 罗马在阿德里安堡战役中溃败
and soon after the Empire was definitively
不久以后 狄奥多西一世的两个儿子
split in two among the sons of Theodosius
最终将帝国一分为二
From this point the western half slowly began to fracture,
从这时起 西罗马帝国开始逐渐走向衰落
first losing Britannia in 410
先是在410年丢掉了不列颠尼亚
and then being reduced piece by piece
而后因匈奴入侵 蛮族被迫越过罗马界墙
to just the Italian Peninsula and a few neighbouring regions,
罗马帝国领土日益缩小
as people from the Barbaricum were pushed over the limes by the Huns.
最后仅剩意大利半岛及一些周边地区
In the second half of the fifth century,
5世纪后半叶
the political structure in Italy was plagued
意大利境内的政治结构
by a number of weak emperors,
因数位软弱的皇帝受创
who were either puppets of Germanic commanders
这些皇帝不是日耳曼长官的傀儡
or men sent by the Eastern Roman Empire
就是由东罗马帝国派遣而来
who had little sway over the locals.
在当地影响甚微
The presence of Germanic nobles and officers so close to the halls of power
日耳曼贵族和军官与罗马权力核心的关系如此紧密
should not be surprising,
其实并不让人惊讶
as the Roman armies had incorporated more and more of their kin
因为罗马军队中日耳曼人的血统日益增多
and the barbarians had become a considerable number of the soldiers,
日耳曼士兵已然在其中占据相当大一部分
thus being integrated into the society,
以此融入罗马社会
like the generals Stilicho and Aetius.
例如 军事统帅斯提里科和埃提乌斯
By the year 475,
到475年
the commander of the troops in Italy, Orestes
意大利境内的军队指挥官欧瑞斯特
deposed the emperor Julius Nepos,
推翻了皇帝朱利乌斯·尼波斯
who fled to Dalmatia,
尼波斯逃往达尔马提亚
and elevated to the Ravennese throne his son Romulus Augustulus.
并立其子罗慕路斯·奥古斯都为拉文纳皇帝
The following year
翌年
Orestes was defeated and executed by Odoacer,
日耳曼部落联盟指挥官奥多亚塞
commander of the Germanic foederati
没有得到新政权欧瑞斯特的报酬
who had not been paid by the new regime.
击败欧瑞斯特并处死了他
Odoacer then ended the string of weak emperors
之后 奥多亚塞废黜了罗慕路斯·奥古斯都
by deposing Romulus Augustulus
据说还在480年暗杀了尼波斯
and possibly having Nepos assassinated in 480.
一改先前统治者软弱之风
He also sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople
奥多亚塞也将帝国权力的标志送到了君士坦丁堡
thus proclaiming there was only one emperor.
以此宣称只有自己一位皇帝
Odoacer would rule Italy
这样 作为生活在意大利的日耳曼国王
as King of the Germans living there
他就能以此身份统治意大利
and acting as a self-appointed regent for the Eastern Emperors.
并自封为东罗马帝国的摄政王
His rule ended in 489
489年 东哥特亲王狄奥多里克
when the Gothic prince Theoderic invaded Italy with his people
率领人民入侵意大利 结束了奥多亚塞的统治
and established control after four years of war,
经历四年战争后狄奥多里克掌权
founding the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths.
建立东哥特王国
So how was the dissolution of the Empire
那么罗马帝国瓦解
felt by the citizens of the Roman Empire?
给罗马公民带来什么样的感觉呢?
That’s a hard question to answer
这个问题不好回答
and a few factors have to be taken into consideration:
有几个因素必须考虑进来:
the geographic location was certainly important,
首先 地理位置的重要性不言而喻
as certain parts of the state were lost at different times
因为帝国内的一些领土是在不同时期
and under different conditions,
不同情况下丢掉的
such as Brittany, which was abandoned in 410 during a succession crisis
例如 410年 因一场继任危机 布列塔尼遭舍弃
and was never reabsorbed into the Empire,
之后再也没有被重新纳入帝国版图
while the whole of Gaul was occupied
尽管日耳曼人用了不到十年时间
by Germanic people in less than 10 years:
就占领了整个高卢地区
different events could be catastrophic in one area
但不同的事件可能对某地来说是灾难
while being barely noticeable in others.
而在其他地方却鲜为人知
Social position also made a difference:
其次 社会地位的作用也不容忽视
It is hard to know if the average peasant
一方面来看 很难知道普通农民
noticed any change in the state,
是否感知到了帝国的变化
because we do not have any testimonies from them,
因为我们没有农民提供的证据
but we could assume that the daily life of a farmer
但我们能推测 除非农民成为攻击受害者
did not change much unless they were victims of attack.
否则他们的日常生活不会有多大变化
On the other hand,
但另一方面
the Roman landowners and aristocracy
在数次入侵中幸免的罗马地主和贵族
that survived the invasions felt a change,
的确感受到了变化
as now they had to come to terms with the new Germanic kings
因为他们不得不在帝国中央湮灭的情况下
while the central Roman State disappeared in the periphery.
接受新任日耳曼国王的统治
Lastly, the settlement of some Germanic people
最后 一些日耳曼人定居的过程
was a slow integration in some parts of the empire
也是其逐渐融入帝国各地的过程
and this could happen over generations,
这需要几代人的时间才能完成
so even if some change did happen,
因而 就算有些变化
it was possibly hardly felt,
可能也很难感知到
while in other regions it was much more traumatic.
但在其他地区 这一过程更让人痛苦
We can discern the mood of some inhabitants of the Empire
通过考察一些基督教士的作品
if we look at some ecclesiastical writers,
我们能感受到帝国部分居民的心情
who were less interested in the political situation
这些基督教士不太关心政治形势
and instead narrate the lives
而是记录当时圣徒的生活
and miracles of the saints of the time.
以及他们的一些神迹
From them, we get different points of view on the social situation,
从他们那里 我们能看到对社会形势的不同看法
and it is interesting to see how some authors underline the transformation
有趣的是 一些作者会强调蛮族人到来之后
which occurred with the arrival of the barbarians,
社会的巨大变化
affirming a point of rupture,
断言原本的生活遭到破坏
while others minimize their presence,
同时 另一些又对蛮族入侵轻描淡写
speaking about a continuation of life and norms.
记录的都是生活和习俗稳定不变
Of the latter
至于后者
we have as an example the Life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre
我们能找到由君士坦提乌斯·里昂
described by Constantius of Lyon:
所写《欧塞尔主教杰马努斯的生活》
while narrating the good deeds completed by the bishop
我们既能读到对主教在高卢遭入侵后
in an invaded Gaul,
所做善事的叙写
we can read a society where the Germanic and Alamannic peoples
也能读到日耳曼人和阿勒曼尼人
are participating in daily life,
参与当地日常生活
and are not the cause of all evils.
并不被视为一切邪恶的根源
On the other side of the coin,
而与这种叙述相对
we have Sidonius Apollinaris,
罗马贵族 奥弗涅主教
Roman aristocrat and bishop of Auvergne
圣希多尼乌斯·阿波利纳里斯
where he led the Roman resistance against the Visigoths.
西哥特人入侵时 他曾带领罗马人抵抗
He thought that the situation in Gaul was polarized
他认为高卢的情势
between a barbaric invader and a dying Roman culture.
向蛮族入侵和罗马文化衰微两个极端发展
A strong supporter of the old Roman norms
阿波利纳里斯从小受传统罗马规范教育
that he had been educated in,
也是这种传统的忠实拥趸
he felt that they were constantly in danger from the Germanic people.
他觉得 日耳曼人不断对这些传统造成威胁
In his mind, the only remedy to this decadence
在他看来 应对这种衰落的唯一方式
was to escape to the monasteries,
就是逃往修道院
where the Romans could conserve their culture.
罗马人在修道院里才能保存其文化
Having now painted a general picture of those years,
对那个时期的概况介绍完之后
let us now look at what the contemporaries thought
让我们看看现代人对废黜罗马最后一位皇帝
about the deposition of the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus.
罗慕路斯·奥古斯都有何看法
One of our most important source of those years
研究这些年份最重要的资料
is the Anonymus Valesianus,
来源于《瓦勒西阿努斯匿名著作》
an author of whom we have two texts
这位作者为我们提供了两个文本
which describe the events from the age of Constantine
描述的事件起至君士坦丁时代
to the end of the reign of Theodoric,
终至狄奥多里克的统治
mentions the deposition of 476
其中提及476年对于罗慕路斯的废黜
commenting that the young Emperor
评论道 这位年轻的国王
was allowed to live in exile
得到准许 被流放到那不勒斯
in Naples with a pension.
在那儿拿着养老金生活
The event is not described with any hint of importance,
这件事的叙述看起来平平无奇
and he certainly does not talk
更别说他根本不会提到
about the end of an Empire or of the Roman world.
一座帝国或者罗马世界的终结
As far as the Italian-Romans were concerned,
在意大利罗马人看来
the empire as a political institution continued to exist.
帝国作为一个政治组织仍然存在
In fact, the Sack of Rome
但实际上 410年
perpetrated by Alaric’s Visigoths in 410
亚拉里克率领西哥特人洗劫罗马
had a much greater effect on the writers of the time,
给当时的作者带来的影响要大得多
prompting the Christian philosopher and bishop Saint Agostinus
这一事件促使天主教哲学家 主教圣·奥斯丁
to write his most important work The City of God,
写下他最重要的作品《上帝之城》
to defend the Christian faith from attacks coming from pagans
以捍卫天主教信仰 抵御异教徒攻击
who saw Christianity as the cause of the weakness of Rome.
这些异教徒将天主教视为罗马衰弱的根源
The bishop of Milan Saint Ambrose, contemporary of Agostinus,
米兰总主教圣·安博 奥斯丁的同代人
underlines the dark times they were living in
着重写他们所在时代有多黑暗
and the decline of the empire, not of the church,
也强调帝国而非教会的衰落
something that the historian Ammianus Marcellinus rebuked,
但历史学家阿米阿努斯·马尔切利努斯反驳了这一点
writing that the Empire had always bumped back.
写道 帝国一直在反击
Two interesting figures who wrote a few years later about the events
几年后 又有两位很有意思的作家写到了这些事件
were Ennodius and Cassiodorus.
恩诺迪乌斯和卡西奥多罗斯
Both of them lived under the reign of the first Ostrogothic king of Italy,
他们都生活在统治意大利的首位东哥特国王之下
and both of them were supporters of Theodoric,
二位也都是狄奥多里克的拥趸
so it is important to underline
所以需要特别强调
that they had the interest to depict the king in a favorable light,
出于这种关系 他们将国王形象刻画得非常正面
attempting to consolidate his legitimacy
试图在意大利罗马人和东罗马帝国眼中
in the eyes of the Roman-Italians and the Eastern Empire.
加强狄奥多里克的统治合法性
Ennodius was a clergyman from Gaul
恩诺迪乌斯来自高卢 是名教士
who moved to northern Italy very young,
幼年时就搬到意大利北部
where he would become bishop of Pavia and Papal envoy.
他在那当上了帕维亚主教和教皇特使
He gives us an interesting insight
他给了我们一个有趣的视角
into the mind of an aristocratic Gallo-Roman
让我们了解到一位与意大利和高卢都有联系的
with connections both in Italy and in Gaul.
高卢罗马贵族的心声
Receiving the education of a Roman aristocrat,
恩诺迪乌斯受一位罗马贵族的教诲
based on the memories of the past splendours,
怀着对过往辉煌的记忆
Ennodius was disenchanted with the situation of the “Empire of Italy”:
对“意大利王国”的状况感到失望
the deposition of Romulus was just a substitution of one weak ruler for another,
罢黜罗慕路斯只不过是长期走下坡路的帝国内
in a state that had been long declining,
软弱统治者的又一次替换
but it was not the culmination of this decline.
但这不是衰落的结束
His views on the Germanic people are mixed,
恩诺迪乌斯对日耳曼人的态度复杂
as we can see in his biography
从他给前任帕维亚主教 埃皮法尼乌斯
of his predecessor Epiphanius, bishop of Pavia.
所写传记便可窥知
Here he depicts in much better light the barbarian Ricimer,
其中 相比于由东罗马帝国派遣的
a Gothic commander in Italy,
国王安特里乌斯
than his counterpart Emperor Anthemius,
他对意大利境内一个哥特指挥官
who had been sent by the Eastern Empire.
蛮族人李希梅尔的刻画要正面得多
Later the opposite happens
但随后 国王尼波斯和西哥特国王尤里克争斗时
when the rivals are Emperor Nepos and the Visigoth king Euric,
他的笔锋一转 又指向了哥特人
so although he viewed the Romans and the Barbarians differently,
因而 尽管他对罗马人和蛮族人的看法不同
he didn’t have a strong bias in favour of one or the other.
他并没有明显偏向哪一方
When Odoacer takes control of Italy,
奥多亚塞控制意大利时
Ennodius makes no mention of Romulus Augustulus,
恩诺利乌斯丝毫不提罗慕路斯·奥古斯都
describing Orestes as a Roman patrician defeated by the foederati.
也只将欧瑞斯特描绘成被联盟打败的贵族
Odoacer is shown as just another ruler of a declining state,
奥多亚塞也和前任皇帝一样
like his Imperial predecessor,
不过只是一个衰落国家的另一个统治者
and only when Theodoric becomes king does the situation improve again.
只有狄奥多里克当上国王 情况才有所改善
Cassiodorus was an Italian statesman and historian
卡西奥多罗斯是意大利政治家 历史学家
who worked for Theoderic
服务于狄奥多里克
and reached high political positions under the Ostrogoth’s reign,
在505-535年东哥特统治期间
from around 505 to 535.
他身居高位
He was born around 485,
卡西奥多罗斯于485年左右出生
so a decade after the deposition of the last western emperor,
距西罗马帝国最后一位皇帝被罢黜已十年
and he wrote a “History of the Goths”
后来他写下现已失传的
now lost to us
《哥特人的历史》
with the intent of integrating the Gothic world into the Roman.
意在融汇哥特世界与罗马世界
What remains from him
他流传下来的
is a watered-down Chronicle of events and other fragments,
有简化版的编年史和其他残作
but once again Romulus Augustulus’ deposition is not mentioned;
但其中也毫无罗慕路斯·奥古斯都被罢黜的笔墨
we can also still discern his opinions
我们也仍能觉察出
on Odoacer and his arrival to power,
他对奥多亚塞及奥多亚塞掌权的观点
which are similar to Ennodius’.
基本和恩诺迪乌斯一致
He is presented as a usurper of the Western Empire,
在卡西奥多罗斯笔下 奥多亚塞无能而腐败
ineffective and corrupt,
是西罗马帝国的侵占者
not unlike many others before him:
和他之前的统治者并无二致
his act of sending the imperial insignia to Constantinople
他将帝国王权的象征送到君士坦丁堡的行径
is strange for Cassiodorus,
让卡西奥多罗斯难以理解
but he does not interpret them as the end of the institutions
但他并未将这一行径解读为西罗马帝国的终结
nor that the Eastern Roman empire now rules the west.
也并不认为帝国从此受东罗马帝国统治
When the Ostrogoths entered Italy
东哥特人入侵意大利
and established themselves at Ravenna,
在拉文纳建立起统治时
the Western Roman Empire
西罗马帝国
returned partially to its splendour
在走了一个世纪下坡路后
after a century of decline,
重振了些许雄风
although greatly resized.
尽管这种雄风大不如前
So, while it is important to remember
所以 虽然要牢牢记住
that the author mentioned up till now
目前为止提到的作家
certainly had the interest
无疑都会出于利害关系
to portray Theoderic as the legitimate ruler of Italy,
将狄奥多里克塑造为意大利的合法统治者
we cannot ignore how little emphasis is put on the year 476.
我们不能忽略 他们都对476年着墨甚少
Certainly, the Empire and the Roman world were in decline in the west,
的确 西部的罗马帝国和罗马世界都处衰落
but it had been so for nearly a century
但这种衰落已经持续近一个世纪了
and the arrival of a barbarian governor as Odoacer
奥多亚塞这样的蛮族统治者掌权
made little difference in the minds of the Romans:
也未能在罗马人心中激起多大波澜
while a usurper in the eyes of many,
尽管在很多人眼中他是篡权者
he was still the head of what remained of the Empire of Italy,
但他仍统治着残存的意大利帝国
and that idea had not died.
这种看法并未消失
But what did the eastern writers think about the topic?
但东罗马的作家对此又有何看法?
Some authors like their western counterparts barely mention it.
一些作者和西罗马作家一样不太提及
The historian Zosimus wrote around the year 510
510年左右 历史学家佐西姆斯
about the decadence of Rome
写到了罗马的衰落
and the role of the Chrisitan faith in its decline:
以及基督教信仰在其中扮演的角色
while his work is incomplete,
虽然佐西姆斯的作品未能完成
it was probably meant to end at the Sack of Rome
但很可能是要以“罗马之劫”为终篇
and he never alludes to the year 476.
他也从未间接提及476年
However, it did not take long
然而 不久之后
for the writers of the time to mention the horror
当时的作家就不免提及
that the deposition of Romulus symbolized,
罢黜罗慕路斯这一举动
or rather the disappearance of the Emperors in the Western half of the Roman empire.
或者说西罗马帝国的皇帝消失象征的残酷
The historian Marcellinus Comes of Dalmatia,
来自达尔马提亚的史学家玛尔刻利努斯·科墨斯
who wrote his Chronicle around the year 519,
在519年左右撰写编年史
puts emphasis on the victory of Odoacer,
他在其中重点关注了奥多亚塞的胜利
as does the historian of gothic origins
同样带有哥特血统
but of byzantine sympathises Jordanes,
但拥护拜占庭帝国的史学家约达尼斯
who wrote around 551 the Getica,
在551年左右撰写《哥特史》
a history of the Goths
这本哥特史作
possibly inspired by Cassiodorus’ lost work.
很可能受到了卡西奥多罗斯遗失作品的启发
When talking about the events of 476,
谈到476年发生的事件时
both of them have the exact same comment:
这两位史学家给出的评论完全一样:
“The Western Roman Empire,
“罗马创立之始709年后
of which title was first taken by August Octavian
因为有了屋大维·奥古斯都
in the year 709 from the founding of Rome,
才有了罗马帝国之名
died with this Augustulu”.
西罗马帝国就这样葬送在了这位奥古斯都手里”
The historian Martin Wes has put forward the conjecture
历史学家Martin Wes提出猜想
that both of them quoted the Roman aristocrat Memmius Symmachus,
这两位史学家都引用了奥多亚塞治下执政官
consul under Odoacer and an important figure in Rome
罗马贵族迈密乌斯·叙马库斯的话
until he and his son-in-law and philosopher Boetius
他和他女婿及哲学家波伊提乌
were executed at the order of Theodoric
在狄奥多图斯统治后期被下令处死
in the latter part of his reign.
此前叙库马斯在罗马还是一名大人物
Should this hypothesis be correct,
如果这个假设成立
it would indicate that some parts of the Roman aristocracy
就能说明 罗马帝国部分贵族
opposed the new royal power in Italy
反对意大利的新王室政权
and did not look with a good eye to the transition
对罗马皇帝到日耳曼国王这一转变
from Roman emperors to Germanic Kings
也冷眼相待
such as Odoacer or the Amalians, the family of Theodoric.
比如奥多亚塞 或者狄奥多里克出身的阿马尔家族
However, just like the previous authors,
然而 就像之前提到的作家一样
we have to remember that Marcellinus and Jordanes
我们必须记住 马尔切利努斯和约达尼斯
possibly had an agenda when writing about these events.
可能在写这些事件时有他们的意图
The Eastern Empire barely tolerated
东罗马帝国毫不容许
the reigns of Germanic people in the west
日耳曼人在西部统治
and once they had the stability and the resources,
所以 一旦东罗马秩序稳定 资源充足
Emperor Justinian began the reconquest of the regions,
皇帝查士丁尼就开始收复失地
first attacking the Vandals in 533
先是在533年进攻汪达尔人
and two years later beginning the Gothic war
两年后又开启哥特战争
for the reconquest of Italy,
以重征意大利
which lasted nearly 20 years.
哥特战争持续近20年
Because of this,
由于这个原因
it was important for the Emperor
对东罗马皇帝来说
to paint the occupation of Italy by the Goths as illegitimate,
将哥特人占领意大利描述为不合法事件极为重要
both to justify the heavy costs of the war
既为了能以正当理由解释高昂的战争开支
and to bring on his side the local Italian population.
也为了拉拢意大利当地人民站在自己一边
The historian Procopius does not note it either,
史学家普罗科匹厄斯也视其为非法
but he was hostile to the Justinian regime
但他对查士丁尼政权也并无好感
and was sometimes sympathetic with the Goths,
有时候还会与哥特人站在一起
so he might also have had a reason not to mention it.
所以他可能也有理由不提及476年
Later lesser-known Greek authors like Evagrius
后来 不太出名的希腊作家 例如埃瓦格里瓦斯
would continue to acknowledge the year 476
继续将476年
as the end of the Western Roman Empire.
认定为西罗马帝国灭亡之年
So in the end,
那么最后要问
did the Western Roman Empire fall in 476 in the eyes of its citizens?
在西罗马人看来 帝国到底在476年陷落了吗?
We would argue that no it did not:
我们认为 答案是否定的
the situation of the Roman government
因为罗马政权在几十年里
had been in a constant state of flux for decades
一直处于动荡变化之中
and the arrival of a Barbarian King
日耳曼国王
who nominally reigned under the name of the Empire
以西罗马帝国的名义掌权
was not a reason to believe that the Roman institution had disappeared.
并不足以让人相信 西罗马帝国已经灭亡
It is only later when Justinian began his conquest of Italy
后来 查士丁尼开始征服意大利
when our historical sources begin to underline the importance of the year 476.
史料才开始强调476年的重要性
We are planning to talk about Justinian in our future videos,
我们计划在之后的视频中讲讲查士丁尼
so make sure you are subscribed
所以 一定要订阅我们的频道
and have pressed the bell button to see the next video in the series.
设好提醒 收看本系列下一个视频
Please, consider liking, commenting, and sharing
衷心希望你能点赞 评论 分享
– it helps immensely.
这对我们来说意义非凡
Our videos would be impossible
没有赞助人和油管频道会员
without our kind patrons and youtube channel members,
我们的视频也无法产出
whose ranks you can join via the links in the description
通过下方的视频描述 你也可以加入
to know our schedule, get early access to our videos,
了解我们的计划 尽早看到我们的视频
access our discord, and much more.
参与我们的讨论 还有更多活动等你
This is the Kings and Generals channel,
这里是《王侯将相》频道
and we will catch you on the next one.
下一个视频我们见

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视频概述

通过对一批史学家的史料考察,探究公元476这一年在各类史料中的论述,回答罗马人是否知道帝国衰落的问题。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

KJQWXYZC

审核员

审核员EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jMwt9zOFX2I

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