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科学会证明女性比男性更善良吗?

Did Science Just Prove Women Are Nicer Than Men?

女孩比男孩更善良!
Girls are way nicer than guys!
至少 新闻标题是这么说的
At least, that’s what the headlines say.
实际上 当提到科学故事时 标题会提到很多极端的事情
The headlines actually say a lot of extreme things when it comes to stories about science.
无论是生物灭绝
Whether they’re writing about mass extinctions,
还是最健康的薯条
or just telling healthiest French fries.
这会产生很多干扰
There can be a lot of noise.
所以 我们做了本期节目 科学与虚构
So, we made this show Science Or Fiction.
看看标题下面的内容 就能发现真相
Take a look behind the headlines, and find the facts.
科学会证明女人比男人更善良吗?
Can science show that women are nicer than men?
当然 在很多童谣和轶事中 女性更加善良温柔
Sure, there’re nursery rhymes and anecdotes about women being the kinder, gentler sex.
但新闻似乎提供了具体数据 证实了这个猜想
But the news makes it seem like there’s actual data to back up that belief.
这是真的
So it was true.
科学家们确实已经研究了很久
Scientists have actually been studying the behavioral differences
男性与女性的行为差异
between men and women for a long time.
就像某些19世纪80年代拙劣的单口喜剧演员
Like there’re some sort of bad 1980s standup comedian.
喜剧演员 他们最差劲 对吧?
Comedians, they’re the worst, right?
特别是 现在有很多调查
Specifically, there’s been a good bit of research about
关于女性是否比男性继承了更多的亲社会行为
whether women exhibit more prosocial behavior than men.
伙计们 真不想这么说 这个数据似乎对我们不利!
Guys, hate to say it, the data doesn’t look good for us!
19世纪80年代的研究表明 与男性相比 女性更加善良
Studies going back to the 1980s have found that women are more kind,
体贴 善于安慰别人 帮助别人
considerate, comforting, helpful,
也更乐于分享
and more likely to share than men.
这项新的研究致力于证明以上观点
And this new study attempted to back all that up by
使用的方法是 测试大脑中愉快中枢对利他行为的反应方式
examining the way the pleasure centers in our brain respond to behaving an altruistic manner.
现在 调查者们用几种不同的方法做这项调查
Now, the researchers ran this study a couple different ways.
首先 他们使用了药物
First, they used drugs.
不是这种(指毒品)
Not those kind of drugs.
他们使用的是多巴胺摄取抑制剂和安慰剂
They used Dopamine Inhibitor and Placebo.
首先提供给参与者的是安慰剂
Participants were first given the Placebo, and then
然后假设一个场景 他们必须做出决定
percented with a hypothetical situation where they had to decide between
是将一大笔钱据为己有 还是与他人分享
keeping a large sum of money for themselves, or spliting it with another person.
与男性相比 更多的女性选择了“与他人分享”
Women went with the “spliting the money” option way more than men did.
51%-40%
51% – 40%.
而给他们提供了多巴胺摄取抑制剂后 重复这个场景
They then repeated that task while taking a Dopamine Inhibitor,
基本上阻止了奖励你做好事的化学刺激
basically cutting off the chemical reward your brain will be given you for doing something nice.
既然如此
In that case,
划分就很平均了 选择与他人分享的女性占了45%
Things were evenly split with 45% women going for the prosocial money spliting option,
男性为44%
as opposed to 44% for men.
调查者做的非常棒
Then, the reseachers did something really cool.
他们通过脑部扫描 分析了纹状体中的活动
They used brian scans to analyze activity in the brain’s striatum,
而我们的奖赏系统就存在于纹状体中
which is where our reward system plays out.
与想象的一样
Ends, as expected,
做出“与他人分享金钱”的决定时 女性的纹状体更为活跃
women showed more activity in the striatum when they decided to split the cash,
而选择据为己有的时候 男性的纹状体更为活跃
whereas men had more activity when they kept it all for themselves.
换句话说 当女性做好事时
Or in other words, when women did the nice thing,
她们大脑的多巴胺水平会上升
their brains were rewarded by uping their dopamine levels where
而男性做出较为自私的决定时 多巴胺水平上升
guys got the same reward for doing them more selfish thing.
男孩们 这看起来对我们不太友好啊!
Guys, not looking good here!
但现在很多人批评这项研究
Now there are some critics of the study.
他们指出 在使用安慰剂的条件下
They point out that in Placebo trail,
在选择做出自私行为的女性中 只有51%的人
only 51% of the women choosing the selfless act doesn’t exactly
没有使自己变得完全忠实于道德标准
make them all overwhelmingly prosocial.
至于这张研究中 脑部扫描的部分
And as for the brain scan part of the study,
两组数据不够充分
well, the data was poor from two different groups
因为他们没有使用同样的脑部扫描仪
that did not use the same type of brain scanner,
他们执行的任务也有轻微的不同
and were asked to perform slightly different tasks which
这对编制资料来说不是很理想 无法得出结论
isn’t really ideal for compiling data to come up with one conclusion.
对于这项研究还有一个批评的观点 连它的作者都赞同
And there’s one criticism of the study that even its authors agree with,
调查者也指出 很难说社会和性别角色对女性的影响有多大
researchers point out that it’s hard to say just how much of an impact society
使她们变得比男性更善良
and gender roles play on women being kinder than men.
事实上 之前的研究也是这样
It’s actually comes up in those older studies too.
如果我们使女性比男性更加善良 更富有同情心
If we actively raise women to be kinder and more compassionate than men,
那这会影响调查结果也就说得通了
it makes sense that this would affect the outcome of a study like this.
当然 其他调查者正在尝试对这些因素做出解释
Of course, other researches have tried to account for these factors like
比如 将那些基于性别不平等国家的善良度调查
comparing studies on kindness from countries with less gender equality
与那些基于更为平等的社会的调查相比较
to those with a more egalitarian soiety.
结果出乎意料!
And the results, pretty surprising!
一项2009年的研究发现 在有更平等的性别社会中的女性
A study in 2009 found that women in societies that had more equal gender roles
有更大可能比男性善良 无私
were even more likely to be kinder, more selfless in men.
伙计们 我知道这仅仅是一个调查 但是!
Guys, I know it’s just one study, but man!
这看起来对我们并不友好啊!
It’s not looking good for us!
这些新闻标题可能过于简单
So these headlines might be a bit simplistic but
但通常来说 这些标题与我们在所处的环境中得到的数据颇为一致
they’re actually pretty consistent with the data we’ve got on the situation, generally said.
男性更低劣 但谁会更可靠呢?在这个视频中寻找答案吧
Guys are meaner but who get sicker? Find out in this video here.
男孩们 我知道你们正在沉思
And guys, I know what you’re thinking.
我们并非全是混蛋 我们可以变得很出色!
We’re not all jerks, we can be nice!
这就是你来证明的机会!
Well here’s your chance to prove it!
在评论中告诉我们你做过的好事
Tell us about something nice you did in the comments.
男生们可能需要一些帮助
And women, the guys might need some help with this so please,
所以请女性也在这里留下你的故事
leave some of your stories in there too.
记得订阅 一定要来Seeker观看更多视频哦!
Don’t forget to subscribe and be sure to come back to Seeker for more videos!

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视频概述

通过科学的角度,告诉你女性是否比男性更加善良

听录译者

Carrina

翻译译者

Iris

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oy82RuTg5IU

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