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亚瑟王真的存在过吗? – 译学馆
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亚瑟王真的存在过吗?

Did King Arthur Really Exist? | Animated History

The story of England is filled with tales of kings and queens,
从诺曼征服者到英国女皇 英国的历史
from a Norman conqueror to a regal Empress.
充满了国王与王后的传说
Among them no English ruler is shrouded in
这些传说中没有人比
as much mystery as King Arthur.
亚瑟王更神秘了
We all know the tales of Excalibur,
大家都知道神剑 卡米洛特
Camelot and the Holy Grail.
和圣杯的故事
But did the fabled ruler really exist?
但这些故事的主人公是否真的存在呢?
Richard Earl of Cornwall
康尔沃的理查德伯爵
was the younger brother of King Henry III
是国王亨利三世的弟弟
and one of the wealthiest man in Europe.
也是全欧洲最有钱的人
Around 1233 he eagerly exchanged
1233年左右 理查德伯爵想用
three of his manors for a small seemingly
三个庄园换取康尔沃海岸边一块
undesirable piece of land on the north Cornish coast.
并不起眼的土地
It was the island of Tintagel,
这块土地就是廷塔杰尔
a harsh rocky headland entirely unsuitable for building on.
一处陡峭的岩石海岬 完全不宜造房子
So why was the Earl of Cornwall so keen to own it?
那么为什么康尔沃的伯爵那么想要它呢?
A century earlier in the 1130s
一个世纪前 即12世纪30年代
a cleric named Geoffrey of Monmouth had written a book
一个名叫蒙默斯的杰佛里的传教士
chronicling 2000 years of the nation’s rulers.
按编年记录了英国2000多年来的统治者
He called it the Historia Regum Britanniae
这本书就是《不列颠诸王史》
or History of the Kings of Britain.
也叫《英国国王史》
One of the tome’s most remarkable tales
其中最有名的故事
was about a king by the name of Uther Pendragon
是一个叫尤瑟·潘德拉贡的国王
who fell madly in love with Igraine
他疯狂地爱上了
the most beautiful woman in Britain.
全国最美的姑娘伊格莱茵
To keep her from Uther’s advances,
为了分开两人
her husband Gorlois Duke of Cornwall
伊格莱茵的丈夫康尔沃的戈罗亚斯公爵
sent Igraine away to Tintagel.
将她送到了廷塔杰尔
Even two or three guards could
在这里 只需一两名守卫
hold this island against an entire army.
就可以抵挡一整个军队
But Uther Pendragon would not be stopped so easily.
但是尤瑟·潘德拉贡不会轻易放弃
He sought the help of the prophet Merlin
他向巫师墨林寻求帮助
who gave the king a magical potion
墨林给了他一瓶魔药
so that he appeared to be Gorlois himself.
将他易容成戈罗亚斯的样子
And in this disguise, Uther traveled to Tintagel,
尤瑟靠伪装来到了廷塔杰尔
fooled the guards and won over his love.
骗过了守卫 抱得美人归
And so, says Geoffrey,
因此 杰佛里认为
King Arthur was conceived on Tintagel island.
亚瑟王存在于廷塔杰尔岛
According to legend, Arthur was crowned king at just fifteen.
传说亚瑟加冕为王时只有15岁
He went on to lead the defense of Britain
5世纪中后期 亚瑟领导
against Saxon invaders in the mid-to-late 400s
英国军队抵抗撒克逊入侵者
securing his place in the ranks of heroic kings.
这使他跻身于英雄国王的行列
We now know that Geoffrey’s stories are mostly made up.
现在我们知道杰佛里的故事大多是编的
But nevertheless,
但是无论如何
they thrilled and inspired people across Medieval England,
这些故事激励和鼓舞了中世纪的英国人
one of whom was Richard Earl of Cornwall.
其中就包括康尔沃的理查德伯爵
Having bought the legendary landscape,
理查德买下了传说中的那片土地
he set about doing what kings and earls do best:
他决定像其他国王和伯爵一样
he built a castle.
建城堡
Unfortunately, the terrain made construction difficult.
然而 城堡的建设因地形而困难重重
The resulting structure was small and had no military value.
最终 城堡建得很小并毫无军事价值
The garderobes or toilets had to be rebuilt several times
其中厕所因经常掉到海里去而不得不
as they kept falling into the sea.
重建了几次
Still, Richard wanted the castle,
但理查德仍想要这个城堡
may be to cement his place in the myth
或许是为了证明他是
as a worthy successor to King Arthur,
亚瑟王的最佳接班人
or simply because he admired him
或只是因为仰慕亚瑟王
as a symbol of honour and chivalry.
因其象征荣誉和骑士精神
He died in 1272 and by around 1300
理查德死于1272年 大约1300年
the castle was already crumbling in the face of the fierce Cornish weather.
城堡因康尔沃恶劣的天气倒塌了
But the remains can still be explored today.
现在仍可以在这里发现城堡遗迹
Many other historic places in England
英国的许多古迹
are also associated with the legend of King Arthur.
都与亚瑟王有关
Carlisle Castle is thought to be a possible location of the Court of Camelot
据说卡莱尔城堡很可能是卡米洛特所在地
while Arthur’s Stone in Herefordshire supposedly marks the place
因为赫里福郡的亚瑟之石被认为是
where the king slew a giant.
亚瑟王杀死巨人的地方
King Arthur’s Round Table in Cumbria
有人说亚瑟王在坎布里亚郡的圆桌
is said to have been his jousting arena
就是他的竞技场
and some even thought that Stonehenge was built by Merlin
更有人认为巨石阵是梅林
for Arthur’s uncle Aurelius as a war memorial.
为亚瑟王的叔叔奥里柳斯建造的纪念碑
One thing is for sure:
有一点可以确定
many people are still drawn to these places
人们仍被这些地方所吸引
and especially to Tintagel.
尤其是廷塔杰尔
Thanks to the influence of one wealthy fan
多亏了这位豪粉的影响
Arthur’s tale remains deeply ingrained
亚瑟王的故事已经成为英国历史
in the fabric of England’s past,
不可磨灭的组成部分
resting somewhere between fact and fiction
在介于事实与小说之间的传说中
in the realm of legend.
占有一席之地
《英国遗迹》

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视频概述

亚瑟王是传说中的古不列颠最富有传奇色彩的伟大国王。人们对他的认识更多来自凯尔特神话传说和中世纪的野史文献。那么,他是否真的存在呢?

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