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古特洛伊真的存在吗?

Did ancient Troy really exist? - Einav Zamir Dembin

“这个伟大的城市 特洛伊 已经灭亡如今只有红色的烈焰在那里”
—— 荷马 《伊利亚特》
.
特洛伊是真实存在的城市吗?
.
公元前八世纪
When Homer’s Iliad was
荷马史诗第一次著成时
first written down in the 8th century BCE,
特洛伊战争的故事早已众所周知
the story of the Trojan warwas already an old one.
从现有的口述传说中
From existing oral tradition,
人们已知道那些长期围攻
audiences knew the tales of the long siege,
城墙外史诗般的决斗
the epic duels outside the city walls,
以及狡猾的诡计赢得这场战争的故事
and the cunning trickthat finally won the war.
最后 这座宏伟的城市被烧为灰烬
In the end, the magnificentcity was burned to the ground,
再也没有出现过
never to rise again.
但是它曾经存在过吗?
But had it ever existed?
到19世纪 考古领域
By the time the field of archaeology began to take shape
开始形成时
in the 19th century,
许多考古学家对此表示怀疑认为这部史诗纯粹是虚构的
many were skeptical,considering the epic to be pure fiction,
是虚构过去的英雄时代的创始神话
a founding myth imagininga bygone heroic era.
但是也有一些学者相信
But some scholars believed
在超人的壮举和非凡的奇迹背后
that behind the superhuman feats and divine miracles
肯定有一丝历史真相—
there must have been a grainof historical truth –
的确有战争以及发生战争的地方
a war that was really fought, and a place where it happened.
弗兰克·卡尔弗特就是其中一位
Frank Calvert was one such believer.
他年少就去旅行并学习古文明
He had spent his youth travelingand learning about ancient civilizations
之后又陪伴他的弟弟弗雷德里克
before accompanying his brother Frederick
在安纳托利亚西北部卡纳卡莱地区执行外交任务
on a diplomatic mission to the northwest Anatolian region of Çanakkale.
这就是荷马描述的
It was here that Homer describedthe Greek encampment
驻扎在斯卡曼德河的河口的希腊营地
at the mouth of the Scamander river.
这里也是命运让弗兰克和
And it was here that fate brought Frankinto contact
名为查尔斯·麦克拉伦的记者兼地质学家接触的地方
with a journalist and geologistnamed Charles Maclaren.
当地人和旅行者们一直推测
Locals and travelers had long speculated
特洛伊可能坐落在附近的一个小山顶上
that Troy might’ve stood on oneof the surrounding hilltops.
但麦克拉伦是最早发表
But Maclaren had been one of the first
关于该地区详细地形研究报告的人之一
to publish a detailed topographicalstudy of the area.
他相信他找到了特洛伊的位置—
He believed he had found the site –
一个32米高被称为希沙利克的山丘
a 32-meter mound known by the name Hisarlık,
这个词源于土耳其语的“fortress”
derived from the Turkish wordfor “fortress.”
在1847年 他们相遇后不久
Soon after meeting with him in 1847,
卡尔弗特买下了2000英亩的农田
the Calverts bought2,000 acres of farmland
其中包括那座山丘的一部分
that included part of the hill.
在他们进一步探索之前
Before they could explore any further,
克里米亚战争爆发并长达数年之久 阻止了他们的考古雄心
the Crimean War broke out and forestalled their archaeological ambitions for several years.
战争结束后 弗兰克·卡尔弗特开始勘测这块领土
After the war’s end, Frank Calvert began to survey the site,
但缺乏资金 无法进行完整的挖掘
but lacked the fundsfor a full excavation.
这时 富有的德国商人 兼业余考古学家
This was where the wealthyGerman businessman
海因里希·施利曼参与进来
and amateur archaeologistHeinrich Schliemann came in.
在卡尔弗特的邀请下
At Calvert’s invitation,
施利曼在1868年拜访此处并决定挖掘
Schliemann visited the grounds in 1868, and decided to excavate.
因急于发现那座古老的城市
Eager to find the ancient city,
施利曼把大量的壕沟挖到了山的底部
Schliemann tore massive trenches all the way to the base of the hill. There,
他在那里发现了一批珍贵的文物 珠宝
he uncovered a hoardof precious artifacts, jewelry,
和金属制品 包括两个王冠和一个铜盾
and metalwork, including two diademsand a copper shield.
这一发现完全归功于施利曼
Schliemann took full creditfor the discovery,
并宣布他已经发现了特洛伊城及其国王普里阿摩斯的宝藏
announcing that he had found Troy and the treasure of its king Priam.
但是真正的宝藏在其它地方
But the real treasure was elsewhere.
当后世的考古学家研究此处时
When later archaeologistsstudied the site,
他们意识到这个高地包含了
they realized that the mound consisted
至少9个城市
of no less than nine cities,
每个城市都建在上一个废墟上
each built atop the ruins of the last.
施利曼发现的城市追溯到迈锡尼时代
The layer Schliemann had uncovereddated back to the Mycenaean Age,
比荷马所处的时代早1000多年
more than 1,000 years too earlyfor Homer.
但是这个高地里的确有证据
But inside the mound was indeed evidence
表明这是一个在青铜时代繁荣的城市
for a city that had thrivedduring the Bronze Age,
用烧焦的石头 折断的箭头
with charred stone, broken arrowheads,
受伤的人体骨骼暗示着暴力的结果
and damaged human skeletons suggesting a violent end.
这是第七层特洛伊城 处在中间层
It was Troy VII,contained in the middle layers
施莱曼的粗心挖掘导致它第二次被破坏
and now ravaged for a second timeby Schliemann’s careless excavation.
这座遗址 占地20万平方米
The settlement,spanning some 200,000 square meters
可容纳多达1万人
and home to as many as 10,000 people,
盛兴至大约公元前1180
thrived until around 1180 BCE.
它位于达达尼尔海峡的南部入口
Its position at the southern entranceof the Dardanelles strait
对国防和贸易来说都是一个重要的战略位置
would’ve made a formidable strategiclocation for both defense and trade.
最重要的是 这里保留了
Most importantly, there are the remains
一个巨大的防御工事墙
of a massive fortification wall –
也许这里正是
perhaps the very same one
普里阿摩斯和赫克托耳曾经看到希腊大军临近的地方
from which Priam and Hector once watched the Greeks approach.
当然 很难确定
Of course, it’s difficult to be certain
这些遗迹是否是古特洛伊的真实遗迹
that these ruins are the true remainsof ancient Troy,
学者们仍然争论荷马所描述的特洛伊战争是否真的发生过
and scholars still dispute whether the Trojan War as described by Homer ever happened.
然而 这个证据足够充分
Yet the evidence is strong enough
联合国教科文组织因此将Hisarlık列为特洛伊的考古遗址
that UNESCO has labelled Hisarlık the archeological site of Troy.
不管它的身份是什么 由于考古学家们坚持不懈
Regardless of its identity, thanks to persistence,
一丝信念以及大量的研究
a bit of faith, and a lot of research,
他们正在揭开
archaeologists are bringing the long-buried secrets
这座古城的神秘面纱
of an ancient, lost city to light.

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视频概述

揭开古特洛伊的神秘面纱

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Stacey

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审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQbZX9JEQsQ

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