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解剖僵尸:脑子和身体(P1) – 译学馆
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解剖僵尸:脑子和身体(P1)

Diagnosing a zombie: Brain and body (Part one) - Tim Verstynen & Bradley Voytek

(僵尸的声音)医生1:那么,怎么才会变成现在这个样子呢?
(Zombie sounds) Doctor 1: So, how did it get to be this way?
医生2:额,我的专业意见是在它的肩膀上的大咬痕可能和某些东西有关。
Doctor 2: Well, it’s my professional opinion that the large gaping bite mark on its shoulder might have something to do with it.
医生1:谢谢你的回答,我的意思是,是什么导致它的行为异常?
D1: Thanks. I mean, what causes its behavioral abnormalities?
医生2:额,因为我们知道所有的行为都是大脑控制的。
D2: Well, we know all behaviors are rooted in the brain,
所以我觉得可能它的大脑里有某些物质变质了。
so I’d expect that something’s gone terribly wrong probably in there.
医生1:再次感谢你的回答,奥维斯医生。
D1: Thanks again, Doctor Obvious.
让我们更为具体的分析一下这种行为的原因。
Let me be more specific.
在大脑中发生了什么变化才会导致这种行为的出现呢?
What changes in the brain would have to occur in order to cause this kind of behavior?
医生2:嗯…,我们来看一下。
D2: Hmm. Well, let’s see.
我注意到的第一件事是它们移动的方式
The first thing I notice is how it moves.
僵硬的腿带着长而笨拙的步伐,十分缓慢而笨拙。
Stiff legged, with long, lumbering steps, very slow and awkward.
就像那些患了帕金森综合症的人的症状一样。
Almost like what you’d see in Parkinson’s disease.
也许他的基底神经节出了些什么问题
Maybe something’s wrong with his basal ganglia?
这些都是大脑深层区域规律性运动的集合。
Those are a collection of deep brain regions that regulate movement,
通过一种叫多巴胺的影响神经系统的化学药剂
through a neurochemical called dopamine.
尽管大多数人认为多巴胺是大脑化学反应中的兴奋剂。
Although most people think of dopamine as the ‘happy’ chemical of the brain,
在帕金森综合症中,含有多巴胺的神经元在基底神经节中死亡。
the dopamine-containing neurons in the basal ganglia die off in Parkinson’s disease,
这就是帕金森综合症产生的原因
that’s what causes it.
使得初步动作越发困难
Makes it more and more difficult to initiate actions.
医生1:什么?_?
D1: What?
让我们再来观察他们是如何运动的。僵硬的四肢,冗长的步伐
Look again at how it moves. Stiff legs, long stance,
这些都不是帕金森综合症患者的运动行为,帕金森综合症的患者会走得慢而且短距离
These aren’t Parkinsonian movements, Parkinson’s patients take short, shuffling steps,
并且肢体的动作总是会出错。
and the posture’s all wrong.
这对于我来说,像是小脑受损后的表现。
This looks to me like what happens when the cerebellum is damaged.
小脑是一个形状像椰菜花的区域,位于头的后部,但不要让它的大小迷惑了你。
The cerebellum’s a little cauliflower-shaped area in the back of your head, but don’t let its size fool you.
这个小家伙囊括了几乎整个大脑一半的神经元。
That little guy contains almost half of the neurons in the entire brain.
小脑退化的病人
Patients who suffer degeneration from this region,
被称作脊髓小脑的共济失调
something called spino-cerebellar ataxia,
表现出协调性的缺失,进而导致腿部僵硬,长步子,走得笨拙。
show a lack of coordination that results in stiff legs, wide stance, and a lumbering walk.
我的研究方向主要集中于小脑。
My money’s on the cerebellum.
医生2:明白,好吧,所以我们已经定位了动力问题。
D2: Touché. OK. So we’ve nailed its motor problems.
那么,这个连续呻吟声和极少交谈的原因是什么呢?
Now what about that whole groaning, lack of talking thing?
医生1:额…你知道,这听起来有点像表达型失语症,抑或是布罗卡氏失语症。
D1: Hmm. You know, it sounds kind of like expressive aphasia, or Broca’s aphasia,
会使得单词的表达极为困难
which makes producing words difficult.
这种症状是由额下回的损坏造成的。
This is caused by damage to the inferior frontal gyrus,
或者可能是前脑岛的损坏造成的
or possibly the anterior insula,
这两个区域都在你左侧大脑的太阳穴后方
both regions behind your temple on the left side of your head.
医生2:我认为你只说对了一半。僵尸绝对不能交流,这是毋庸置疑的
D2: I think you’re only half right. Zombies definitely can’t communicate, that’s for sure.
但是他们似乎也并没有很好的理解能力
But they don’t seem to do a good job of understanding things either.
看这个。你好,走着路的那个人!你的父亲有接骨木的味道
Watch this. Hey, Walker! Your father smelt of elderberries!
(大笑)看到了吧?没有反应。
(Laughs) See? No reaction.
要么它不是巨蟒剧团的粉丝,要么它不能理解我的意思
Either it’s not a Monty Python fan, or it can’t understand me.
我认为这就像韦尼克氏失语症
I’d say this is like spot-on fluent Wernicke’s aphasia,
破坏一个区域交界处的两片大脑页,颞页和顶页
damage to an area at the junction of two of the brain’s lobes, temporal and parietal,
通常左侧的大脑是罪魁祸首
typically on the left side of the brain, is the culprit.
这个区域在身体上了解到有关的布罗卡区,就如你刚刚所提到的
This area is physically connected to Broca’s area, that you mentioned,
通过大量的被称为弓形纤维束的神经纤维束
by a massive bundle of neurofibers called the arcuate fasciculus.
我假设这个起巨大的连接作用的神经束完全消失在僵尸的大脑中
I hypothesize that this massive bundle of connections is completely wiped out in a zombie.
神经束习惯被看做连接两个城市的高速公路。
It would be like taking out the superhighway between two cities.
一个制作产品的城市
One city that manufactures a product,
并且其他的城市就会通过轮船把产品销往世界的其他地方
and the other that ships it out to the rest of the world.
没有那样的一条高速公路,产品的分布就阻断了
Without that highway, the product distribution just shuts down.
医生1:所以,大体上在对僵尸的解释上存在着一个争议的观点
D1: So, basically it’s a moot point to reason with a zombie,
因为他们不能理解你,更不用指望他们会给你回话
since they can’t understand you, let alone talk back.
医生2:(大笑)我的意思是,你可以尝试一下,朋友,但是我会保留容易被反驳的那一边的意见的
D2: (Laughs) I mean, you could try, man, but I’m going to stay on this side of the glass.

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