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硅谷的那些事儿 – 译学馆
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硅谷的那些事儿

Development of Silicon Valley

ED GLAESER: Many of humanity’s greatest hits have occurred in cities.
人类许多最伟大的成功都出现在城市
Penicillin in London, the telephone in Boston,
如伦敦的盘尼西林 波士顿的电话
Facebook in Canbridge, Mass.
马萨诸塞州坎布里奇的脸书
But the technological breakthroughs of Silicon Valley
但硅谷的技术突破
had being a decidedly suburban affair.
却显然与郊区有关
While Silicon Valley is certainly dense with talent and
硅谷人才济济
its companies value face to face interactions.
硅谷公司重视面对面的沟通交流
Those interactions take place in a car oriented, moderate density
旧金山和圣何塞之间 交通便利 密度中等
at most semi-urban cluster nestled between San Francisco and San Jose.
他们就在这里的半城市集群之间互动
Only during this millenium have we seen a real trend
仅在千禧年期间 才真正出现
where many tech related startups
许多科技初创公司
have shown up in cities like San Francisco, Boston,and New York.
现身旧金山 波士顿和纽约等城市的趋势
Timothy Sturgeon’s work teaches us that the history of Silicon Valley
蒂莫西·斯特金的研究表明硅谷
starts well before World War II.
在二战之前就起步顺利
One of the region’s first tech
硅谷首批科技创业公司之一
start ups was the federal telegraph
是联邦电报
which was founded because of a teenage radio genius,
公司创立缘于一无线电少年天才
Francis McCarthy of San Francisco,
即旧金山的弗朗西斯·麦卡锡
who died in a freak streetcar accident in that city.
他在旧金山因一次离奇的有轨电车事故而去世
The streetcar killed the radio star.
有轨电车夺去了这个无线电天才的生命
McCarthy’s financial supporter decided that wireless telegraphy still had promise
麦卡锡的财政支持者哈里斯·瑞恩认为无线电报前景可期
and then he turned to a Stanford electrical engineer, Harris Ryan.
他后来成为斯坦福电气工程师
He recommended a star pupil of his,
并建议其得意门生
Cyril Elwell, to develop and
西里尔·埃尔维尔 继续发展麦卡锡的理念
commercialize McCarthy’s ideas.
并将之商业化
Stanford University was founded by railroad builder and
斯坦福大学由时任加州州长的铁路大亨利兰·斯坦福所创立
California governor, Leland Stanford, as a deeply practical place of learning.
是极具实践性的学习场所
Business and science were woven together deep
商业与科学紧密交织
in Stanford’s DNA from the beginning
从一开始就深深刻在斯坦福的DNA里
and that helps explain why this
这也有助于理解
played such a crucial role in the development of Silicon Valley.
斯坦福在硅谷发展中占据重要地位的原因
Elwell dropped McCarty’s plans and
埃尔维尔放弃了麦卡锡的方案
turned instead to Valdemar Poulsen’s arc transmitter.
而转向瓦尔德马尔·鲍尔森的电弧发射器
And Federal Telegraph began as an American Outpost of that Danish Technology.
联邦电报公司作为这一丹麦技术的美国前哨起家
From 1911 to 1913, Lee de Forest worked at Federal Telegraph,
从1911到1913年 德福雷斯特在联邦电报工作
where he developed revolutionary vacuum tube amplifiers and
期间他研发的真空管电子信号放大器和振荡器
oscillators that would dominate the radio industry for years.
多年在无线电行业占主导地位
Federal Telegraph inspired and then employed the young Fred Terman,
联邦电报公司受到鼓舞 并聘用了年轻的弗雷德·特曼
the son of a Stanford University psychologist who pioneered IQ tests.
其父是斯坦福大学心理学家 曾开启智商测试先河
Young Fred studied engineering at Stanford and MIT and
弗雷德曾在在斯坦福大学和麻省理工学习工程专业
eventually returned to Stanford as Professor Dean and Provost.
最后回到斯坦福大学担任教授 院长和教务长
Terman saw the advantage of industry university interactions
特曼看到了大学与产业的互动优势
just like Standford himself and the investors who contacted Harris Ryan.
就如斯坦福本人与哈里斯·瑞恩的投资者一样
And he planned an industrial park right near the campus.
他计划在校园附近建一个工业园
Such commercialization was anathema to many
20世纪80年代以前
older Eastern universities
较早的美国东部大学
as late as the 1980s.
不认可这种商业化
For an anchor tenant he reached out to William Shockley,
他找到威廉·肖克利做为固定承租方
the Nobel Prize winning co-inventor of the semi-conductor,
诺贝尔奖获得者 与人共同发明半导体
who was willing to come to Silicon Valley partly
肖克利之所以愿意来到硅谷
because he grew up in Palo Alto and
部分原因在于他在帕洛阿尔托长大
knew its charms, especially its mild Mediterrean climate.
知道这里的迷人之处 尤其是温和的地中海气候
Shockley proved to be the ideal
事实证明肖克利是非凡的企业家
entrepreneur to jumpstart a regional innovation economy.
他推动了区域创新经济
His genius attracted talent.
其天赋吸引了大量人才
Shockley Semiconductors’ early employees are now legendary.
肖克利半导体的早期员工现在已是传奇人物
Gordon Moore of Moore’s Law, Eugene Kleiner of Kleiner-Perkins,
摩尔定律的戈登·摩尔 Klerner Perkins的尤金·克莱纳
Robert Noyce of Intel.
英特尔的罗伯特·诺伊斯
Then his erratic management style repulsed that talent and
但肖克利异乎寻常的管理模式逼走了有才干的员工
sent it out throughout the Valley to form their own firms.
他们在硅谷组建了自己的公司
Eight brilliant employees,”the traitorous eight,” left Shockley Semiconductor
才华横溢的“叛逆八人帮”离开了肖克利半导体公司
in 1957 to be part of a new company, Fairchild Semiconductor.
他们在1957年加入新公司仙童半导体
Fairchild Semiconductor then generated more spin offs,
之后仙童半导体产生了更多分支
the Fair Children and they came to be
仙童半导体成为了
at the economic heart of Silicon Valley.
硅谷的经济核心
AnnaLee Saxenian’s regional advantage compares the corporate cultures in Silicon Valley
在安娜李·萨克森尼安的书
and the tech district in Boston’s route 128.
《地区优势:硅谷和128地区的文化与竞争》中
In her telling, Boston was hierarchical, corporate,
她写到128地区强调的是等级
and dominated by a few big companies such as Raytheon.
由雷神等大公司占主导地位
Which had been founded Vannevar Bush, Termin’s MIT mentor.
特曼的麻省理工导师范内瓦布什创立了雷神公司
Those big companies didn’t talk to each other.
128公路的大公司互不沟通
By contrast, Silicon Valley’s culture was entrepreneurial and interactive.
相比之下 硅谷的文化具有企业精神 互相影响
Saxenian describes how bars like Walkers Wagon Wheel became hubs for
萨克森尼安讲述了19世纪60年代像Walker’s Wagon Wheel等酒吧
idea exchange in the valley in the 1960s.
成为硅谷公司信息沟通交流中心的过程
Silicon Valley ate route 128 for lunch
硅谷蚕食128公路地区的地位
which reflects a more general fact of that post war economic growth.
反映了战后经济增长更为普遍的事实
Entrepreneurial places with lots of little firms have done much
在实现经济增长方面 聚集了许多小公司的创业区域
better than places dominated by a few big companies.
业绩优于大公司处主导地位的地区
There maybe a lesson in that for city officials
对于想用丰厚资金补贴来吸引实力强大雇主
who try to woo mega employers with generous subsidies.
的政府官员而言 这或许是个教训
In a sense, Silicon Valley did benefit from a traditional
从某种意义来说 硅谷的确受益于
urban asset of face to face contact.
面对面沟通这一城市优势
And it certainly benefited from the proximity to all that
当然硅谷也受益于邻近的所有那些
engineering brilliance at Stanford.
斯坦福培养的优秀工程师
But it did keep it’s success at a suburban density level.
即使位于郊区硅谷也做到了成功
Clearly, you don’t need density to be economically dynamic.
显然 经济繁荣无需人口密度大
At least if you’ve got a great university,
至少 如有优秀大学为依托
a great climate, and
宜人的气候
you can attract many of the most innovative people on the planet.
可以吸引许多全球最具创新性人才
One downside of the Silicon Valley model is
但硅谷的劣势在于
that it is a bit of an industrial monoculture.
行业有一点儿单一
Whereas technology in New York or
而位于纽约或伦敦的科技公司
London exists in the midst of a diverse urban economy,
地处城市经济多样性的中心
Silicon Valley does not.
硅谷则不然
The great urbanist Jane Jacobs argued that industrial diversity
著名城市规划师简·雅各布斯认为行业多样性
often allows new ideas to be created by combining old ideas.
有利于融合旧观念 从而产生新理念
Innovation occurs by cross industry leaps of imagination.
创新产生于不同行业之间想象力的碰撞
Michael Bloomberg’s company, which is ultimately a tech firm itself,
迈克尔·布隆伯格的科技公司
was created in New York, not Silicon Valley,
创立于纽约 而非硅谷
precisely because Bloomberg knew what Wall Street traders wanted on their desks.
恰是因为他了解华尔街交易员的工作所需
Gradually tech companies started rediscovering
渐渐地科技公司也重新发现
the virtual of dense, mess, urban life.
密集嘈杂都市生活的好处
Amazon relocated to the urban heart of Seattle.
亚马逊重新将总部设在西雅图市中心
Pinterest, Zynga, Trulia, and Yelp
Pinterest Zynga Trulia以及Yelp
are all in the city of San Francisco itself,
也都地处旧金山市区
not in Silicon Valley.
并不在硅谷
So is Uber.
优步也是如此
Indeed, it’s hard to imagine that car service company starting in a suburb.
难以想象一家汽车服务公司设立于郊区
Its success depended on having enough density of drivers and customers.
优步的成功依赖于足够密集的司机和乘客
Wayfair and Akamai in Boston.
波士顿的Wayfair 和阿卡迈
New York has a legion of tech companies and some
众多科技公司云集在纽约
of them like E*trade and Tumblr,
其中像亿创理财和汤博乐
seem to draw on the city’s traditional industries like finance and publishing.
似乎也利用了如金融和出版业等城市传统行业优势
Google’s parent company, Alphabet, has Invested heavily in New York,
谷歌的母公司Alphabet通过谷歌本身
both through Google itself and through its investment in Sidewalk Labs.
和人行道实验室 在纽约大量投资
Why have tech companies started to like cities?
科技公司为什么开始钟情于城市呢
In many cases,
大多数情况下
the urban location reflects
定位于市区反映了
the preference of the owners and their employees.
雇主及其员工的偏好
For younger, hipper people, the suburbs, even Silicon Valley,
对于年轻人 嘻哈人群 郊区 即使是硅谷
may not seem like that much fun.
似乎吸引力也不大
Zappos’s move to Los Vegas gave it access
Zappos搬迁至拉斯维加斯
to a very special type of labor.
在那招募到了非常特别的员工
The highly theatrical, strongly outgoing people who answer its phone lines.
客服人员外向热情 说话语气夸张
And try to bind customers to the company.
努力为公司留住客户
Biogen relocated its headquarters
百健也为其总部重新选址
from the leafy Boston suburb where I usually sleep
从我经常住宿的枝繁叶茂的波士顿郊区
to Kendall Square, which is closer to its academic partners at MIT.
搬迁至肯德尔广场 距其合作伙伴麻省理工更近
In this case, the move reflects a recognition of the traditional
百健总部搬迁反映了一种认知
urban advantage in spreading knowledge.
即传统的城市优势在于传播见闻
In some cases, urbanization is a good fit for the product mix.
有时城市化有益于产品结构
When a tech company provides services
当科技公司提供的服务
which are particularly valuable in cities
在城市更能彰显其价值时
like Yelp or Uber.
比如像Yelp或优步
it probably makes sense to better understand urban life.
选址于城市中或许更有助于了解都市生活
Certainly, knowledge of the difficulties of urban existence
而了解都市生存的艰难
can help give entrepreneurs good ideas,
有助于企业家想出好点子
as it did for Robin Chase at Zipcar.
就如Zipcar创始人罗宾·蔡斯
Silicon Valley is going great guns.
而硅谷的发展也正如火如荼
And I’m not predicting that this will change.
我并不是说都市地区优势会改变
But it’s worth noting that a century
值得注意的是上个世纪
ago such a successful place would
在郊区发展成功的硅谷
have turned itself into a real city.
已然成为了名副其实的市区
Unfettered by land use regulations, demand for
硅谷不受土地使用规定限制
the area space would have led to soaring densities.
区域空间的需求导致密度飙升
Without zoning rules Silicon Valley streets would be lined with
如没有区域规则 硅谷街道两边
skyscrapers just like New York City.
也会和纽约一样 摩天大楼鳞次栉比
I’m sure many of the valley’s residents are glad that that hasn’t happened.
我确信硅谷居民很高兴情况并非如此
And that the region has retained its character.
硅谷仍保留着其特色
But it’s worth stressing that for all the valley’s creative strength,
但需要强调的是对于硅谷所有创新人才而言
it has one great failure.
硅谷有一个失败之处
It is ridiculously expensive.
即房价高的令人咋舌
It just does not supply anywhere
硅谷无法满足许多
near the number of homes needed to keep pace with demand.
周边家庭的住房需求
If the region chooses to remain low density,
如果硅谷继续保持低密度
its housing prices will stay high
房价仍会持高不下
and it will never provide welcoming space for middle income people.
硅谷将无法为中等收入人群提供舒心空间
The way that the growing cities
上个世纪 纽约 芝加哥
of New York and Chicago did a century ago.
发展方式也是如此
Silicon Valley’s restrictiveness of high prices
由于高房价的限制
may make it a paradise for
对于美国一些最聪明的人而言
some of the smartest Americans.
硅谷或许是天堂
But by restricting the growth of density,
但由于密度增长受到限制
it fails to provide more widespread opportunity.
硅谷无法为更多的人才提供机会

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视频概述

硅谷,云集众多知名高科技公司。它是如何发展而来的?与其他科技园区相比,硅谷的优势和劣势是什么呢?

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnb-hjfA7eI

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