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深海中的居民

Denizens of the Deep

太空深处或许有最终的边界,但是我们已经知道很多有关恒星的轨道的事情。
Deep space may be the final frontier, but we already know more about the orbits of stars
围绕这大质量的黑洞的在银河系的中心,然后我们研究一下
around the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way then we do about the
生存我们这个地球上的深海中的鱿鱼和其它生物的行为
behavior of the colossal squid and other creatures that live deep in the oceans here at home.
事实上,我们这个行星的百分之六十覆盖满了深于一千米的水,这意味着
In fact, water deeper than a kilometer covers more than 60% of the planet, which means we
我们对这个地球上的普遍环境知之甚少。这里(海洋深处)的生物奇特而有趣
know very little about the most common environment on Earth. There, creatures odd and tasty have
它们学习怎样在充满黑暗的环境、在接近零度的气温和极端的压力下生存,所有的这些都意味着
learned to survive in constant darkness, near-freezing cold, and extreme pressure, all of which mean
这里有非常少的可获得的氧气、食物或朋友
there’s very little available oxygen, food, or companionship.
生存在这个环境中需要特别的适应性。海里一千米以下
Surviving in this environment requires some extraordinary adjustments. One-thousand meters
,压力是我们正承受着的地表压力的一百倍,或者足以
down, the pressure is over 100 times what we experience at the surface, or enough to
把一个英式足球那么大体积的空气压缩到一个半乒乓球中,和其它鱼不同
compress the air in a soccer ball to the size of a ping pong ball – and a half. Unlike most
这些生活在深海中的生物没有空气囊即鱼漂儿,
fish, the ones that live in these depths don’t have gas-filled cavities like swim bladders,
鱼漂会在大的压力下压坏。事实上,超级深海鱼常常
which would collapse under the extreme pressure. In fact, super deep-water fish often have
有特别小的骨骼和果冻状的肉体,因为对抗深海极端压力的唯一办法
minimal skeletons and jelly-like flesh because the only way to combat the extreme pressure
就是在你的结构支持下面有水。
of deep water is to have water as your structural support.
在以前我们并不干涉深海鱼,但是最近一段时间当海岸的捕渔场资源耗尽,
Until recently we left deep water fish alone, but as coastal fisheries became depleted,
渔民出海去到大海的远处,他们发现很多美味的鱼。他们抓住了
fishermen went further out to sea, where they found a lot of large tasty fish. As they caught
海表面以下较浅处的鱼,他们捕捞更深处的鱼。
(and depleted) the ones near the surface, they simply fished deeper.
但是捕捞深海的鱼是游戏规则的改变,因为这些鱼能非常好的适应
Fishing deep is a game changer, though. Because these fish are remarkably well adapted to
深海的压力,它们非常不适宜应现代捕鱼业的带来的冲击。
the pressures of the depths, they are remarkably unfit to deal with modern fishing pressures.
低温和食物匮乏意味着较少的鱼生活在深海,同时
Cold temperatures and lack of food means that fewer fish live in the deep, and those that
那样,它们生长缓慢也意味着它们繁殖缓慢,比如红狮子鱼【棘胸鲷属】
do, grow slowly – which means they also reproduce slowly. For example, the Orange roughy [Hoplostethus
整个一生的寿命常常超过一个世纪,生活在海面以下五百至一千五百米。
atlanticus] live out their long lives – often more than a century – 500 to 1500 m below
它们最多每年更替它们数量的百分之六
the ocean’s surface. At their best they can only replace 6% of their population each
然而浅水鱼像鳕鱼、马鲛鱼和青鱼它们用相同的时间替换将近一半数量的该类鱼
year, while shallow-water fish like cod, mackerel, and herring replace half of their entire population
当1980年商业性的捕捞红色狮子头开始,
in the same time. When commercial fishing for orange roughy took off in the 1980s, the
捕捞效果惊人的好,但是不到二十五年的时间大部分的网空网而归。
catch was astoundingly good – but within 25 years, most nets came up empty.
如果你仔细想想,我们主要对大海进行捕捞,这就意味着粗野的捕捞
If you think about it, we’re basically mining the oceans, which means it’s rough going both
红色狮子头或者其它生长缓慢但味道鲜美的深海鱼类,与此同时
for orange roughy and other slow-growing but delicious denizens of the deep, as well as
对于渔民来说他们的依靠捕鱼维持生计。如果我们知道收获
for the fishermen whose livelihoods depend on them. If we could only learn to harvest
这些鱼,与它们自己更替的速度相当。这将对鱼和渔民都有利,也对
fish at the same rate as they replace themselves, it would benefit fish, fishermen, AND our
我们将来的烹饪有利。因为,我们能去小行星上开采矿物或者其它宝贵的金属,
future cuisine. Because, while we can always mine asteroids for minerals and precious metals,
但剧我所知,太空当中没有任何的鱼,所以我们可能需要保护它们
as far as we know, there aren’t any fish in space – so we should probably be protective
保护我们这个地球拥有的鱼类!
of the ones that we have here!

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pp7BZjJkc_8

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