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为什么一打面包是13个?

DEMYSTIFIED: Why Is a Baker’s Dozen 13? | Encyclopaedia Britannica

There are twelve to a dozen.
一打有12个
That’s what most of us learn in grade school.
大部分人在小学时就知道
Twelve has been an important number
数千年来
across many civilizations for thousands of years.
12在许多文明中都是一个重要的数字
It’s a highly “composite” number
它是一个超级“合数”
it can be evenly divided by a lot of smaller numbers.
它可以被好几个比它小的数整除
Twelve is easy to divide up into twos, threes, fours, or sixes.
12很容易被分成2份3份4份6份
This easy divisibility makes twelve a good number for measurement.
这种“可分”性让12成为绝佳的计量数
Twelve inches to a foot.
12英寸等于1英尺
Twelve months in a year.
一年有12个月
Two times twelve hours in a day
一天有两个12小时
and five times twelve minutes in an hour
一小时有五个12分钟
and seconds in a minute.
一分钟有五个12秒
It’s no wonder that we so often buy by the dozen or half-dozen
不足为奇的是 我们买东西通常是成打或者半打买
But what’s called a “baker’s dozen” is actually thirteen.
但有一种面包师的‘’一打” 实际上是13个
So what’s the deal with bakers?
那么这是怎么一回事呢?
If a “baker’s dozen” is thirteen, that’s way less useful.
如果面包师的‘’一打”是13个 那这并没有什么特殊意义
Thirteen is a prime number
13是个质数
it barely divides at all.
几乎不能被整除
What’s the point?
意义在哪?
What do bakers know that we don’t?
有什么是面包师知道而我们不知道的?
Today, this isn’t very common.
如今 这种情况已经不常见了
Generally when you order a dozen donuts,
通常当你点了一打甜甜圈
you’ll get the expected twelve.
你会得到预料中的12个
But some bakers will still include an extra bun
但一些面包师会额外再加一个小面包
with an order as a nod to tradition
这是一种致敬传统的方式
or just as a savvy customer service move.
或者说是一种精明的客户服务举措
In the past, keeping your customers happy wasn’t just good for business,
在过去 让顾客满意 不仅对生意有好处
it was good for your health.
甚至对健康也有益处
There are a few theories as to how a baker’s dozen became thirteen.
关于面包师的一打为什么是13个
But the most widely accepted is that
最广受认可的一个是
bakers would throw an extra loaf
面包师是为了免受鞭打
into orders of a dozen to avoid a flogging.
所以多加一个面包
In medieval England,
在中世纪的英格兰
there were strict laws controlling the price of bread.
有严格的法律来控制面包的价格
Bread had to be priced in relation to
面包的价格必须
the price of the wheat used to bake it.
与烘烤面包的小麦价格挂钩
If a baker was found
如果一个面包师被发现
to have cheated by shorting their loaves,
在面包上缺斤少两
things could go badly for them.
事情就会变得很糟糕
And “badly” in medieval England meant…
而“糟糕”在中世纪的英格兰意味着……
they could be fined or even beaten.
他们可能会被罚款甚至被鞭打
Human rights violations aside,
撇开侵犯人权不谈
the big problem with these laws was
这些法律存在的最大问题是
that even careful bakers make mistakes.
细心的面包师也会偶尔出错
Variations in rising, baking, and air content
因为发酵程度 烘烤条件和空气含量的变化
could all change the size of a loaf
都可能影响到面包的体积
and made it hard to be sure it was the planned weight.
这就使得控制面包重量变得十分困难
And some bakers didn’t even have scales to weigh their dough on.
有的面包师甚至连秤面粉的秤都没有
Afraid of accidentally coming up short,
有的面包师担心缺斤短两
some bakers would just throw an extra loaf into lots of twelve.
所以干脆在12个的面包堆里再多放一个
The extra made sure they were staying within the law
多加一个就能确保他们不违法
and avoiding a flogging.
免受鞭刑
Some bakers even used fourteen instead of thirteen for a dozen.
有的面包师干脆用14个面包作为一打
Better safe than sorry, right?
未雨绸缪总是好的 对吧?
Mathematically, twelve is probably still the better value for a dozen.
从数学角度看12可能仍是一打更合适的数值
But now you know that bakers had their reasons.
但你也知道了 面包师们这样做有他们的道理

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视频概述

一直以为“一打”面包就是12个,试着去买一打面包,结果或许会不一样哦。

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审核员HJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq4WiJXj3c4

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