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刻意训练理论:如何精通一切技艺

Deliberate Practice: Achieve Mastery in Anything

Deliberate practice is a mindful and highly structured
刻意练习是一种有意识的
form of learning by doing.
高度结构化的做学结合的练习
It’s a process of continued experimentation
这是一个不断尝试的过程
to first achieve mastery and eventually full automaticity of a specific skill.
是从某种技能的初步掌握再到极度熟练的过程
A 2014 study published in Psychological Science
2014年 一篇发表在《心理科学》的研究指出
argues that it can increase our performance
该训练可以将我们在比赛方面的表现提高26%
by 26% in games, 21% in music and 18% in sports.
在音乐方面的表现提高21% 在运动方面的表现提高18%
Here are some tips on how to do it well.
熟练使用这种训练有两个技巧
Define Success and Drill Deliberately
定义成功与有意识的练习
Define all the elements you need to practice to become successful.
定义成功所需的所有因素
Then drill each element deliberately, one after the other.
而后逐个训练
In Tennis, that could be first your serves and then later your leg work.
如网球 首先练习的是发球 而后是腿部的姿势动作
If you want to become a professional barista,
如果你想成为一个专业的咖啡师
first perfect your moves to make the espresso,
首先应当熟练制作浓缩咖啡的过程
then your skills to serve the ideal coffee.
进而精进做咖啡的技艺
Plan, Reflect and Take Notes
制定计划 反馈并记录
Plan out your practice routine,
制定出你的练习计划
for example in a notebook.
可以把计划写在笔记本上
After each session, reflect and write down what you’ve discovered:
每完成一个环节 都要反思并记录所发现的问题
What worked?
哪些因素让你做得更好?
What didn’t?
哪些没有?
The idea is to get a clear sense of
这样做能让你厘清每个环节
how a particular session improves your skills
对提高自己能力的作用
and then to experiment to find new and ever better way to achieve your goals.
之后再找新的 更好的方法 来完成目标
Go Slow
练习时请慢一点
To build a good foundation of muscle memory,
为了塑造良好肌肉记忆的基础
practice slow and correctly.
请缓慢并准确地练习
If we move too fast,
如果练习得太快
we risk learning and internalizing the wrong skills,
我们会承担错误技巧学习与内化的风险
which can bring terrible consequences.
这会带来糟糕的后果
To achieve mastery, our brain needs time to develop.
我们的大脑需要时间去真正掌握一项技能
So start slow and then gradually increase the speed
所以请由慢及快逐渐加速
until you give all you’ve got .
直到倾尽全力
Limit Your Sessions to Focus
限制训练目标的大小以提升注意力
Deliberate practice is hard mental work.
刻意练习是一项艰苦的脑力劳动
Limit the sessions to a reasonable duration that allows you to stay focused.
限制练习项目在合理时长内可保持注意力集中
This may be 15 minutes if you are younger
若你年纪尚轻 可一次训练15分钟
and 60 minutes if you are older.
如果不是 可以练习一个小时
A Cristiano Ronaldo trains around 3-4 hours of football a day.
足球运动员罗纳尔多每天练习3~4小时
Young Shaolin Monks practice 2 hours in the morning
年轻的少林和尚 每天早晨练习2小时
and two hours in the afternoon,
下午再练习两小时
To keep their attention high,
为保持注意力高度集中
they switch the style of practice every 10 minutes.
他们每十分钟便会转换练习方式
Maximize Practice Time
最大化练习时间
Legendary basketball coach John Wooden
传奇篮球教练约翰 伍德
used to let each of his players practice putting on socks and shoes
曾常让他的球员练习穿袜子和鞋子
so that they learn to do it really fast.
这样他们可以穿得更快
By doing this, he maximized the time
因而会在同样的练习时间里
to practice throwing the ball and discussing game strategy with his team.
延长用于投球和团队讨论策略的时间
Track Small Intervals of Improvement
用小的测量区间追踪自己的进步
If you practice running 800 meters,
如果你要练习800米跑
count the milliseconds not the minutes.
时间记录到豪秒 而不是分钟
If you are working out or practice controlling your diet,
如果你在努力减肥或节食
measure milligrams and millimeters.
记录要精确到毫克和毫米
The smaller the data points you measure, the faster you see progress
更小的数据点 让我们看到更快的进步
and the more you feel motivated to continue.
从而让我们更有动力坚持
Emulate Practice, Not Performance
模仿他人练习的过程 而不是最终的表现成果
The top performance we see on screens or on stage
我们在荧幕或舞台上看到最顶尖的表演
is the results of endless hard work behind the curtain.
都是在幕后无数次努力练习的结果
If you want to become as good as Pavarotti in the Opera
如果你想拥有和帕瓦罗蒂一样优秀的唱功
or as skillful as Messi with the ball,
或与梅西一样出色的球技
don’t watch them perform,
不要仅关注他们的舞台表现
study how they practice.
而要去学习他们练习的方式
Repetition Makes Perfect
同一过程的重复可以精进技艺
In the 1990s, a team of German psychologists
上世纪90年代 一群德国的心理学家
revealed that it takes 10,000 hours of deliberate practice
揭示了要成为一名专业的小提琴家
to become a professional violinist.
需要一万小时的刻意练习
A similar study concluded it also takes almost
类似的研究也表明 成为优秀的雪茄制造商
just as long to become a great cigar maker.
同样需要一万个小时
New workers in a cuban cigar factory
在古巴雪茄工厂里的新员工们
take around 25 seconds to make one cigar.
大约每25秒制作出一支雪茄
After 100,000 repetitions, it takes them just 15 seconds
在重复10万次后 只需15秒
and after 1 million only 8.
而在一百万次重复后 只需8秒
To reach peak performance,
为了达到顶尖的业绩
it takes 7 years and 10 million repetitions of the same hand movements.
员工们需用7年 重复同样的手部动作一千万次
Not practice, but repetition makes perfect.
使技艺精进的并非练习 而是重复
Professional football teams therefore play daily what the Spanish players call “Rondo”.
因此职业足球队每天都要训练西班牙运动员嘴中的回旋踢
Piano players warm-up with Scales and Arpeggios.
钢琴家用音阶和琶音来热身
Routine Is Everything
日常训练就是精进技艺所需的一切
To reach mastery,
想要达到大师级别
Young Shaolin Monks get up at 5:30AM.
年轻的少林和尚每天早晨5:30起床
Then chant, eat breakfast and practice two hours of kung fu.
而后念经 吃早餐 再练习2小时的功夫
At 11:30 they have a vegetarian lunch with no liquids to aid digestion.
11:30吃下没有液体帮助消化的斋饭
At around 3PM, they practice another two hours.
至下午3点 他们会再练习2个小时
At 5:30 is dinner, followed by chanting.
傍晚5:30吃晚饭 然后念经
At 8 meditation. At 10 time for bed.
晚上8点打坐 10点睡觉
Us normal people can start with 15 Minutes every day
我们普通人可以从每天15分钟开始
and then slowly increase our session.
然后慢慢增加训练时间
Get a Coach
可以找一个教练
The job of a coach is to show us our true potential
教练的职责是激发我们真正的潜能
and then guide us in the right direction.
并引领我们走向正确方向
If you don’t have a coach, look for one.
如果你还没有教练 那去找一个吧
It can a teacher, a friend
老师或朋友
or even someone you find or follow online.
甚至是网上遇到或关注的人都可担起这一角色
For our favorite teachers and coaches,
想接触我们最受欢迎的老师与教练
visit our sprouts channel page
请访问我们豆芽频道首页
and check out our playlists.
看看我们的播放列表
The Dalai Lama believes deliberate practice not only works for muscles,
达赖喇嘛认为刻意练习不仅是对肌肉的训练
but also for our mind.
也是对大脑的训练
He and other wise minds
他和其他智者
deliberately practice taking other people’s anger, suspicion and mistrust
有意识地练习接纳他人的愤怒 猜疑和不信任
and then giving them patience, tolerance and compassion in return.
而报之以耐心 宽恕和怜悯
What do you think about deliberate practice,
你如何看待刻意练习
can we also use it for training our thinking skills?
我们可以用它来训练思考技巧吗?
Share your thoughts in the comments below!
请在评论下面里分享你的观点

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-sjUoGO250

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