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深海之谜与猜想 – 译学馆
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深海之谜与猜想

Deep ocean mysteries and wonders

我曾经在学校度过一段艰苦岁月,
You know, I had a real rough time in school with ADD,
拥有了博士学位。
and I have a PhD.
我获得了博士学位,同时也付诸了辛苦
I earned a PhD, but it’s tough to pay attention to
对于我来说学习生物学、地理学、物理学和化学真的是很辛苦。
biology, geology, physics, chemistry — really tough for me.
一件事引起了我的注意力
Only one thing grabbed my attention.
就是这个我们叫做地球的行星,
And it’s that planet called Earth,
但是在这张图片上你看到的
but in this picture right here you’ll see that
地球大部分地方都是水,那是太平洋。
Earth is mostly water — that’s the Pacific.
70%的地球表面覆盖了水,你可能会说
70 percent of Earth is covered with water and you could say,
嘿,我知道地球这个行星。我住在这儿。
"Hey I know planet Earth. I live here."
但你不了解地球。
You don’t know Earth.
你不了解这个行星因为覆盖了这些–
You don’t know this planet because most of it’s covered with that —
平均深度两英里
average depth is 2 miles.
当你出门仰望
And when you go outside and look up
帝国大厦,克莱斯勒大厦,
at the like the Empire State building, Chrysler building,
大海的平均深度就是这些大厦的15倍
the average depth of the ocean is 15 of those
(全部首尾相接叠加的高度)
on top of one another.
我们已经探寻了大海的百分之五。
We’ve explored about 5 percent of what’s in that water.
探寻就是第一次去看一下看看那儿有什么。
"Explored," meaning for the first time go peek and see what’s there.
所以我今天想做的就是向你展示
So what I want to do today is I want to show you
一些关于这个行星的东西,关于大海。
some things about this planet, about the oceans.
我想带领这你从浅海看到深海,
I want to take you from some shallow water down to the deep water,
同时希望,像我一样,你能够看到并想到一些东西
and hopefully, like me, you’ll see some things
将让你迷上探寻地球这个行星。
that get you hooked on exploring planet Earth.
你知道的东西比如珊瑚,你已经看到过足够的珊瑚了,
You know things like corals, you’ve seen plenty of corals,
这些你在海滨或潜水艇通道看到过
those of you that have been to the beach, snorkel,
你知道珊瑚有令人惊异之处
you know corals are amazing places to go —
充满了生命,一些大的动物,小动物还有特别微小的动物。
full of life, some big animals, small animals, some nice,
有些有危险性,鲨鱼、鲸鱼以及所有的东西。
some dangerous, sharks, whales, all that stuff.
它们需要从防护中得到保护。
They need to be protected from humanity.
珊瑚这里是好地方,但是你可能不知道
They’re great places, but what you probably don’t know about
在深海中,非常深的海中,
is in the deep ocean, the very deep part of the ocean,
我们也发现了火山喷发。
we have volcanic eruptions.
大部分地球上的火山在大海的底部
Most volcanoes on Earth are at the bottom of the sea —
百分之八十的火山都在。而且实际上也会有火,
more than 80 percent — and we actually have fire,
在海洋的深处有火,现在不断喷发着。
fire deep inside the ocean, going on right now.
在全世界,在太平洋、大西洋和印度洋
All over the world, in the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean,
在这些地方,在海底,岩石也仍会变成岩浆。
in this place, the ocean floor, the rocks actually turn to liquid.
所以实际上在海底也有波浪。
So you actually have waves on the ocean floor.
你可能会说没有什么东西可以在那里生存,但当你查看细节,
You’d say nothing could live there, but when we look in detail,
甚至在深海当中,在这地球上最黑暗的地方,我们找到了生命,
even there, even in the deepest, darkest places on earth, we find life,
这告诉我生命实际上想要在那里出现
which tells us that life really wants to happen.
所以,漂亮的神奇的东西。
So, pretty amazing stuff.
每次我们去到大海的底部。
Every time we go to the bottom of the sea,
我们用我们的潜水艇和机器人勘探
we explore with our submarines, with our robots,
我们看到了一些特别令人惊奇的事物
we see something that’s usually surprising,
有时是令人惊奇的,有时是革命性的。
sometimes it’s startling and sometimes revolutionary.
你看到那有一滩泥沼,
You see that puddle of water sitting there.
围绕这这些水有一些悬崖,
And all around the water there’s a little cliff,
还有一些白色的沙滩海滨。
there’s a little white sandy beach.
我们将靠近它,你将把这些海滩看得更清楚一些,
We’ll get closer to it. You’ll see the beach a little bit better,
在水中一些波浪,在下面
some of the waves in that water, down there.
这些水的特殊在于
The thing that’s special about this water is that
这些在墨西哥湾的海底。
it’s at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico.
所以当你坐在潜水艇里从窗户向外看
So you’re sitting inside of submarine looking out the window
在大海之下有一小池水
at a little pond of water beneath the sea.
我们看到了池塘、湖泊和河流–
You know we see ponds, we see lakes, we see rivers —
实际上在那有一条河在海底
in fact right here is a river at the bottom of the ocean
从低处的左方出发流向高处的右方。
going from the lower left to the upper right.
水实际上从那里流过。
Water is actually flowing through there.
这完全打破了我们的思维:在海底怎么会这样?
This totally blew our minds: how can you have this at the bottom?
在海底看到了更多的水。
You’re in the ocean looking at more water.
而且有只生活在那些水里的动物。
And there’s animals that only live in that water.
所以,在海底–
So, the bottom of the ocean —
我喜欢这个地图因为它展示了在海底的中间有山脉
I love this map because it shows in the middle of the ocean there’s a mountain range.
这条山脉是地球上最大的山脉
That mountain range is the greatest mountain range on Earth.
它叫做大洋中背–
It’s called the Mid-Ocean Ridge —
五万英里长,我们很难一眼看到底。
50,000 miles long, and we’ve hardly had a peek at it.
非常难一眼望穿。
Hardly had a peek at it.
我们找到了山谷,数以千计的山谷
We find valleys, many thousands of valleys
与美国大峡谷比起来它们更长、更宽也更深。
larger, wider, deeper than the Grand Canyon.
我们看到了,正像我说的这些水下的湖泊、河流和瀑布。
We find, as I said, underwater lakes, rivers, waterfalls.
这个行星上最大的瀑布
The largest waterfall on the planet
实际上在在靠近冰岛的海的下面。
is actually under the ocean up near Iceland.
所以的这些我们勘探的东西在那百分之五里面。
All that stuff in that 5 percent that we’ve explored.
所以关于大海
So the deal about the ocean is that
勘探大海必须要有技术。
to explore it you’ve got to have technology.
不只是技术,也不只是大卫盖洛
Not only technology, but it’s not just Dave Gallo
一个人的勘探。是整个团队的人们并肩作战。
or one person exploring. It’s a team of people.
你必须要有才能,你也必须要有团队。
You’ve got to have the talent. You’ve got to have the team.
你必须要有技术,基于这个原因我们的船,亚特兰蒂斯,
You’ve got to have the technology and in this case it’s our ship, Atlantis,
潜水艇,阿尔文。
and the submarine, Alvin.
在现在的潜水艇里–这有一个阿尔文探海艇–
Now, inside that submarine — this is an Alvin launch —
探海艇里有三个人。他们去到甲板上。
there’s three people. They’re being wheeled out onto deck.
有其它47人。在那个船上工作的团队
There’s 47 other people. The team work on that ship
确保在那里的三个人的安全。
making sure that these people are okay.
在那个潜水艇上的每个人只是在考虑一件事:
Everybody on that submarine is thinking one thing right now:
我能再去一次洗手间吗?
should I have gone to the bathroom one more time?
因为你要在那里呆十个小时
Because you’re in there for ten hours —
在那个小的球体里呆十个小时。
ten hours in that little sphere.
你们三个人在一起,没有人在你们身边。
Three of you together and nobody is going to be around you.
你进入到水中,每次击水都会感到惊奇
You go into the water and once you hit the water it’s amazing.
有可爱的蓝色的穿过你的身旁
There’s a lovely color blue that penetrates right inside you.
你再也不能听到水面上的船
You don’t hear the surface ship anymore,
你听到声呐定位仪的震动声。
you hear that pinging of a sonar.
如果你有苹果手机你就可以在上面接受到声呐
If you’ve got an iPhone you’ve got sonar on there —
相同的震动到达底部又回到上面
it’s that same pinging that goes down to the bottom and comes back up.
潜水员检查潜艇确保外面已经就绪
Divers check out the sub to make sure the outside is okay,
然后表示说“出发”
and then they say "Go,"
然后下潜到海底,这是一个奇妙的旅程
and down you go to the bottom of the ocean and it’s an amazing trip.
两个半小时后你下沉到了海底。
So for two and a half hours you sink down to the bottom.
两小时完全进入黑暗。
And two hours of it is totally pitch black.
现在我们到达了我们认为没有生命可以生存的世界
And now we thought that nothing could live inside that world
在大海的底部。
at the bottom of the ocean.
当我们仔细看,我们找到了神奇的东西。
And when we look, we find some amazing things.
所以下潜的路,我们叫它“中间的水”从大海顶部
All the way down — we call it "the mid-water" from the top
下潜到底部,我们找到了生命
of the ocean down to the bottom — we find life.
每当我们停下来看看,我们就会找到生命。
Whenever we stop and look we find life.
我会向你展示那里的一些水母
I am going to show you some jellies here because
因为它们绝对是地球上最酷的生物。
they’re absolutely some of the coolest creatures on Earth.
看那个东西,在挥打这它的手臂。
Look at that thing just flailing his arms around.
那个像一个小龙虾。
That’s like a little lobster.
那个像所有这些动物一样把它们的嘴钩在一起
That one is like all these animals with their mouths hooked together.
它们是这领地的生物
They’re colonial animals.
有些动物很小,有些动物比这个舞台还要长。
Some animals are tiny, some can be longer than this stage.
它们是神奇的动物,你不能用网去收集它们。
Just amazing animals and you can’t collect them with a net.
我们不得不去到那里带着我们的照相机看它们
We have to go there with our cameras and take a look at them.
所以每次我们去,都会看到新物种的生命
So every time we go, new species of life.
海里充满了生命
The ocean is full of life.
但是海洋的最深处
And yet the deepest part of the ocean —
当我们到达那个山脉,我们发现了泉水。
when we go to that mountain range, we find hot springs.
现在我们确定了,因为那是有毒的水,
Now we were sure, because this is poisonous water,
因为非常深,压力足以压碎泰坦尼克号
because it’s so deep that it will crush the Titanic
就像你用手压碎一个空杯子一样
the same way you crush an empty cup inside your hand.
开始我们确信那里应该是完全没有生命的
We were sure there would be no life there at all.
相反的我们找到了更多的有差异性的、繁多的生命
Instead we find more life and diversity and density
比热带雨林还要多
than the tropical rainforest.
所以,举一个例子吧,在潜水艇窗户向外一看
So, in one instance, in one peek out the window of the sub,
我们发现了一些革命性的东西
we discover something that revolutionizes the way
我们考虑你在地球上的生命
we think about life on Earth, and that is
就是你不需要经常得到阳光来维持生命
you don’t always have to have sunlight to get life going.
在水下这里也有大型动物,有一些看起来很熟悉
There’s big animals down there too — some that look familiar.
我们叫它“Dumbo”。我喜欢它,Dumbo很大
That guy’s called Dumbo. I love him. Dumbo’s great.
这个家伙,噢天哪我希望我有更多的
This guy, oh man I wish I had more footage of this.
我们尝试进行一场专门的探险去研究它们
We’re trying to get an expedition together to go look at this
或许一年时间我们就可以达成
and maybe in a year we’ll have that.
可以联机看到。
Go online and look.
幽灵蛸,即吸血鬼鱿鱼。
Vampyroteuthis infornalis. The Vampire Squid.
难以置信的酷!
Incredibly cool.
在大海深处的黑暗里,它有着发光的触手,
In the darkness of the deep sea he’s got glowing tentacles,
所以当我像它一样走近你,我把我的手臂伸入黑暗当中
so if I’m coming at you like him, I put my arms out in the the darkness
你看到的全部的就是这些发光的东西
so all you see are these little glowing things over here.
在这期间,我就来到了你身旁
In the meantime, I’m coming at you.
当它想逃跑的时候,
When he wants to escape, he’s got these glowing pods
它的屁股看起来像眼睛
on his butt that look like eyes.
它有发光的眼睛在它的屁股上。很酷不是吗?
He’s got glowing eyes on his butt. How cool is that?
它真是神奇啊,神奇的动物!
It is just an amazing, amazing animal. (Laughter)
吸血鬼鱿鱼,当它开始防护的时候
Vampire squid, when it gets protective,
它拉上它的黑披肩把它全身盖上
it pulls this black cape over its whole body,
蜷缩成球状。令人吃惊的动物。
curls up into a ball. Outrageous animal.
这个船,这个“梦之船”–一百年前
This ship, "the ship of dreams" — a hundred years ago
在四月即将到来的时候,这艘船的目的地是在纽约着陆。
this coming April, this ship was supposed to show up in New York.
去年我带领一个探险队到达那里,到达泰坦尼克号
it’s the Titanic and I co-led an expedition out there last year.
我们知道很多关于这个船的事
We are learning so much about that ship.
泰坦尼克号是一个对于生物学来说有意义的地方
Titanic is an interesting place for biology
因为动物们搬进泰坦尼克号来住
because animals are moving in to live on the Titanic.
微生物实际上吃掉了泰坦尼克号的船体。
Microbes are actually eating the hull of Titanic.
那船头就是杰克呼喊我是世界之王的地方
That is where Jack was king of the world right there on the bow of Titanic.
我们正在做真正的好事,而且鼓舞我的是
So, we’re doing real good and what’s exciting me is that
有一天我们能做出一个虚拟的泰坦尼克号来让你坐在家里
someday we’re making a virtual Titanic so you can sit there at home
带上你的耳机并控制你的操纵杆
with your joystick and your headset on,
而且亲自可以实际勘探泰坦尼克号
and you can actually explore Titanic for yourself.
那就是我们想做的–
That’s what we want to do —
制作出虚拟的世界,所以不是大卫盖洛
make these virtual worlds so it’s not Dave Gallo
而是你自己亲自勘探世界。
or someone else exploring the world; it’s you.
你亲自勘探它
You explore it for yourself.
所以这就是基本情况。
So here’s the bottom line.
大海是未开化的
The oceans are unexplored
我不能告诉你那是多重要
and I can’t begin to tell you how important that is
因为那对我们来说都很重要。
because they’re important to us.
七十亿人生活在这个星球上
Seven billion people live on this planet
而且我们被大海阻隔开了,因为大海
and all of us are impacted by the sea because the oceans
控制着你呼吸的空气和你喝的水
control the air you breathe, the water you drink,
以及你吃的食物。
the food you eat.
我们被大海以某种方式控制着
All those are controlled in someway by the ocean
而且这是我们甚至都没有探寻过的
and this is a thing that we haven’t even explored —
百分之五
five percent.
这是我想要留给你做的
The thing I want to leave you with is
在那百分之五中我展示给你一些酷的东西
in that 5 percent I showed you some cool stuff.
我们每次潜水下去到大海中都会看到很多酷的东西
There’s a lot more cool stuff every dive we go out on
我们找到很多有关大海的新东西
in the ocean, we find something new about the sea.
所以那是在那95%当中?
So what’s in that other 95 percent?
我们是否在那里找到了更多令人激动的新东西?
Did we get the exciting stuff or is there more out there?
我在这儿告诉你,大海中充满了惊喜。
And I am here to tell you that the ocean is full of surprises.
用一句我特别喜欢的马塞尔普鲁斯特的话:
There’s a quote I love by Marcel Proust:
“真正是的勘探航行不是看风景”
"The true voyage of exploration is not so much in seeking new landscapes,"
我们要做的是,
which we do,
“用新的视角看大海”
"but in having new eyes."
我希望今天给大家展示的这些,
And so I hope today by showing you some of this,
会给予你看我们这个星球的新视角,
it’s given you some new eyes about this planet,
首先我希望你能够想到不同的东西。
and for the first time I want you to think about it differently.
谢谢大家,谢谢!
Thank you very much. Thank you.
(掌声 欢呼)
(Applause)

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