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揭露强迫症的真相 – 译学馆
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揭露强迫症的真相

Debunking the myths of OCD - Natascha M. Santos

有个普遍性的误解
There’s a common misconception that
如果你喜欢一丝不苟的整理物品
if you like to meticulously organize your things,
保持双手干净
keep your hands clean,
或把周末的细枝末节都计划出来
or plan out your weekend to the last detail,
你可能患有强迫症
you might have OCD.
事实上 强迫症全称是强迫性神经官能症
In fact, OCD, which stands for obsessive compulsive disorder,
是种严重的精神病学状况
is a serious psychiatric condition
常常被社会及诸如心理健康专家们
that is frequently misunderstood by society
所误解
and mental health professionals alike.
那我们就开始揭开一些奥秘吧
So let’s start by debunking some myths.
奥秘1:重复或仪式性的行为差不多等同于强迫症
Myth one: repetitive or ritualistic behaviors are synonymous with OCD.
正如它名字暗示的那样 强迫性神经官能症分两方面:
As its name suggests, obsessive compulsive disorder has two aspects:
入侵式思维 想象 冲动 被称作强迫观念
the intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, known as obsessions,
以及人们为缓解强迫造成的焦虑
and the behavioral compulsions people engage in
所做的行为性强迫
to relieve the anxiety the obsessions cause.
人们常把这些行为和强迫症联系在一起
The kinds of actions that people oftenassociate with OCD,
像过度的洗手 或者重复检查东西
like excessive hand washing, or checking things repeatedly,
可能都是强迫症的表现
may be examples of obsessive or compulsive tendencies
我们当中很多人都会一次又一次的表现出来
that many of us exhibit from time to time.
但是事实上无序的行为可能并不会太多
But the actual disorder is far more rare and can be quite debilitating.
人们几乎无法影响和控制
People affected have little or no control over their obsessive thoughts
他们的强迫思想 和强制性行为
and compulsive behaviors,
这会消耗他们的时间
which tend to be time consuming and interfere
打乱他们的工作 学校和社会生活
with work, school or social life
也就带来非常大的痛苦
to the point of causing significant distress.
区分是不是强迫症的标准就是
This set of diagnostic criteria is
与强迫症的人相比
what separates people suffering from OCD
那些人可能通常情况下没那么一丝不苟
from those who may just be a bit more meticulous
或者过分爱干净
or hygiene obsessed than usual.
奥秘2:强迫症的主要症状就是过度洗手
Myth two: the main symptom of OCDis excessive hand washing.
尽管洗手这个画面
Although hand washing is the most common image
在强迫症里是最常见的
of OCD in popular culture,
然而强迫或强制性可能有不同的表现形式
obsessions and compulsions can take many different forms.
强迫症的主要表现是担心污染和疾病
Obsessions can manifest as fears of contamination and illness,
担心会伤害到其他人
worries about harming others,
或者过分关注数字 模式 道德和性别
or preoccupations with numbers, patterns, morality, or sexual identity.
强制性行为体现在过度的情节或者反复检查
And compulsions can range from excessive cleaning or double checking,
苛求东西都要摆放的无可挑剔
to the fastidious arrangement of objects,
或者都按照既定的模式行进
or walking in predetermined patterns.
奥秘3:患有强迫症的人并不觉得自己表现得不合理
Myth three: individuals with OCD don’t understand that they are acting irrationally.
事实上很多强迫症人都清楚的明白
Many individuals with OCD actuallyunderstand the relationship
他们自己的强迫意念与强制性行为之间的关系
between their obsessions and compulsions quite well.
尽管他们会意识到自己的不理智
Being unable to avoid these thoughts and actions
但仍无法避免这种想法和行为
despite being aware of their irrationality
这就是强迫症患者会感觉烦恼的部分原因
is part of the reason why OCD is so distressing.
强迫症患者感觉自己很疯狂
OCD sufferers report feeling crazy
因为他们在不理智的想法基础上经历着焦虑
for experiencing anxiety based on irrational thoughts
并且发现自己很难控制他们的回应
and finding it difficult to control their responses.
究竟是什么造成了强迫症?
So what exactly causes OCD?
令人失望的是 我们仍旧无法回答这个问题
The frustrating answer is we don’t really know. However,
然而 我们还是有一些线索的
we have some important clues.
强迫症是一种神经生物学的无序
OCD is considered a neurobiological disorder.
换句话说 调查结果表明强迫症患者的大脑
In other words, research suggests that OCD sufferers brains
基本上是固定的思维模式 会以某种确定的形式表现出来
are actually hardwired to behave in a certain fashion.
调查表明大脑的三个区
Research has implicated three regions of the brain
社会行为 复杂的认知计划
variously involved in social behavior and complex cognitive planning,
随意运动 情感以及动机回复方面都有不同表现
voluntary movement, and emotional and motivational responses.
其他的一些迷题就是强迫症
The other piece of the puzzle is that OCD is associated
与血清素程度较低有关
with low levels of serotonin,
血清素沟通大脑的不同结构
a neurotransmitter that communicates between brain structures
帮助调节 是一种神经递质
and helps regulate vital processes,
比如心情 侵害 冲动控制 睡眠
such as mood, aggression, impulse control, sleep,
胃口 身体体温以及疼痛
appetite, body temperature and pain.
但是我们大脑这些区域的血清素和活动
But our serotonin and activity in these brain regions the sources of OCD
造成这种无序的莫名的症状
or symptoms of an unknown underlying cause of the disorder,
我们可能不知道
we probably won’t know
除非我们对大脑有更深刻理解的那一天
until we have a much more intimate understanding of the brain.
好的消息是 现在已经有有效的办法治疗强迫症
The good news is there are effective treatments for OCD,
比如药物治疗 通过大脑细胞限制再吸收
including medications, which increaseserotonin in the brain
增加大脑中的血清素
by limiting its reabsorption by brain cells,
行为疗法渐渐让患者感觉不到焦虑
behavioral therapy that gradually desensitizes patients to their anxieties,
某些情况下 如果其他治疗手段对强迫症患者都不起作用
and in some cases, electroconvulsive therapy,
电休克或是手术的方法就会应用到治疗中
or surgery, when OCD doesn’t respondto other forms of treatment.
能否了解你的大脑取决于你自己
Knowing that your own brain is lying to you
尽管不能违背它的命令可能让你觉得苦恼
while not being able to resist its commands can be agonizing.
但是随着知识与理解力的发展
But with knowledge and understandingcomes the power to seek help,
未来我们对大脑的研究
and future research into the brain may finally
会给我们想要的答案
provide the answers we’re looking for.

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有一天我们对大脑深刻了解的时候,可能就会对强迫症有更深的解读。

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视频来源

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