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最致命的蘑菇——死亡帽 – 译学馆
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最致命的蘑菇——死亡帽

Death-Cap Mushrooms Are Terrifying and Unstoppable

大多数毒蘑菇只会导致头痛或呕吐
Most mushrooms that are poisonous will just you a headache or make you throw up.
真正致命的品种很罕见
It’s rare that a species will actually kill you.
死亡帽就是其中的一种
The death cap is one of those.
它会杀死你的细胞
​It kills your cells
并积聚在肝脏和肾脏中
and then it concentrates in your liver, in your kidneys,
导致这些器官停止运转
and it causes those organs to shut down.
但更大的问题是 死亡帽正在成为全球性的品种
But the bigger story is that death caps are becoming more of a global species,
而它如何作用于更大的生态系统仍是个未解之谜
and how it’s affecting the larger ecosystem is still a bit of a mystery.
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死亡帽是一种长在树根上的伞状毒蘑菇
Death caps are an amanita mushroom that grow on the roots of trees.
它们一般通过生出的小须根 连接树根末端
They basically make little slippers that go on the ends of the roots.
这样它们给树木提供其所摄取的地下营养物质时
And so they’re taking sugars from the tree
也可以从树上汲取糖分
while giving back nutrients that they collect underground
以建立共生关系
creating a symbiotic relationship.
这很有趣
And it’s interesting
因为你看到地上有一圈蘑菇 就会想
because you‘ll see a circle of mushrooms on the ground and think,
“噢 这肯定是有人用陶瓷做出来的
“Oh, somebody must have made these out of ceramic
因为只有它们才能创作出来这小小仙境”
because they just created this little fairy land.”
但如果你退后一步再观察
But if you step back and look at it,
就会发现蘑菇实际上是附着在树根上的
you can tell that mushroom is actually attached to the roots of the tree.
像死亡帽这种附着在树木根部的蘑菇
Mushrooms that are attached to roots, like death caps,
孢子通常降解的很快
often have spores that degrade quickly,
所以并不会传得很远
so they don’t really travel that far.
但人类进行了干预 把树木移走用作观赏
But humans got involved and moved trees around for ornamental purposes,
一时间 这些原本没人干预 会一直生长在欧洲的蘑菇
and suddenly these mushrooms that without human involvement would have stayed in Europe,
依托寄主树根的移动
have actually found a much better niche in the Pacific Northwest
在太平洋西北部找到了更好的定居场所
by traveling in the roots of their host trees.
通过蘑菇总动员 我们打开了潘多拉盒子
We’ve opened Pandora’s box by entirely mobilizing mushrooms.
如今 死亡帽不仅仅可以停留在它们的寄主树上
And now death caps are not just staying with their host trees,
还通过树根与树根之间的关联
but moving to new native hosts by traveling along where
转移到新的本土寄主上面
the roots of one tree touch the roots of another.
目前还不清楚这种转移如何影响生态系统
It’s unclear how this is playing out in ecosystems.
它们可能会淘汰本土蘑菇
They may be bumping out native mushrooms.
也可能给植物引入新的病原体
They may be introducing new pathogens to the plants.
但可以明确的是
But what is becoming clear is that
某种程度上 死亡帽正在自然化
the death caps are naturalizing in a way,
而人类没有办法阻止它们
and there is no way you can stop them.
[音乐]
[Music]
[音乐]
[Music]

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视频概述

最致命的蘑菇—死亡帽的危害和进化过程

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收集自网络

翻译译者

长安小盆友

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQ28IOhU_Bk

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