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大卫·芬奇特立独行的人格

David Fincher - And the Other Way is Wrong

嗨 我是托尼 这里是《一帧一画》
Hi, my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting.
我发现一件关于导演的趣事
One thing I find interesting about filmmakers is that
他们导的作品越多
the more they direct,
就越能够在一场戏中最小的细节里表达他们自己
the more they can express themselves in the smallest details of a scene.
“你想要什么?”
–What is it you want?
很多人认为能区分导演水平的是他们拍摄大场面的手法
A lot of people think directors are distinguished by how they shoot the big set pieces,
那些狂野炫酷 非常时髦的场面
the crazy oners, the really stylish stuff.
没错 这种镜头从来都不缺
And yeah, these are the shots that get copied,
也确实强烈暗示了某个人物的内心想法
and they do give you a strong indication of someone’s vision.
不过或早或晚 每位导演都会拍上这样一场戏:
But sooner or later, every filmmaker goes back to scenes like this:
一个空间 两个人 交谈
Two people in a room talking.
差不多是最不具电影感的东西
Just about the least cinematic thing there is.
但就是像这样的戏告诉了你导演真正在乎的是什么
And it’s scenes like this that tell you what they really care about.
“如果不是我需要医务官
–If I didn’t need a medical officer,
“连驻地周围几光年范围内你都别想踏进”
–I would let you within light years of this operation.
“—我永远感激您—留着讽刺你自己吧”
–I’m eternally grateful. –Keep your sarcasm to yourself.
那大卫•芬奇呢?
And David Fincher?
他在意的是线索
He cares about information.
与很多避免暴露线索的导演相反
Unlike many filmmakers,who try to avoid exposition,
有时候芬奇要的就是暴露线索
sometimes Fincher does nothing but.
“盐分的量要刚刚好
–The salt balance has to be just right,
“所以做肥皂最好的脂肪就是人体脂肪”
–So the best fat for making soap comes from humans.
“—等一等 这是什么地方?—抽脂诊所”
–Wait, what is this place? –A liposuction clinic.
在芬奇的电影世界里每当人物发现一条新线索 剧情就往前推进一步
In his world, drama happens when a character learns a new piece of information.
“就在地下室里”
–Just down in the basement.
这跟他们已知的一切有什么关联?
How does it fit with everything they already know?
“加州家里有地下室的人不多”
–Not many people have basements in California.
离真相更进一步后 他们有什么反应
And how do they reactto learning a little bit more of the truth?
“我有”
–I do.
芬奇的风格是这种概念的拓展
Fincher’s style is an extension of this idea and
而听他描述他的思考方式也很有意思
it’s interesting to hear him describe his process.
大家知道你无所不能 所以问题是:
They know you can do anything, so the question is:
你不做什么 而不是你做什么
What DON’T you do, not what do you do.
所以 到底大卫·芬奇不做什么呢?
So, what does David Fincher NOT do?
一个是手持摄影
For one thing, handheld.
芬奇是一个偏执地使用三脚架拍摄的导演
Fincher is a locked-down put-it-on-a-tripod filmmaker.
他不喜欢手持摄影的感觉一部片里可能就一次手持摄影
He hates handheld and does it maybe once per film.
《龙纹身的女孩》里有两场《十二宫》只有一场
Dragon Tattoo has two scenes, while Zodiac has one,
而《社交网络》中只有一个这样的短镜头
and The Social Network has only this shot.
《七宗罪》是芬奇作品里含手持摄影最多的 五场
Se7en has the most handheld of any Fincher film: five scenes.
“电话 电话 电话呢?电话呢?”
— Phone. Phone. Phone? Phone?
不过当他终于用了时 注意看他是怎么设计的
But even when he uses it, notice how he designs around it.
拍警探时 镜头不停地在摇晃
The camerawork on the detectives is shaky,
然而旁边这个龙套——这场戏的关键人物
while John Doe, who has all the power in the scene,
却是用三脚架拍摄的 十分稳定
is shot on a tripod, rock-solid.
“—盒子里是什么?—你先把枪给我”
–WHAT’S IN THE BOOOOOX? –Not till you give me the gun.
“—他妈的盒子里到底是什么!—把枪给我”
–WHAT’S IN THE FUCKING BOX! –Give me the gun.
“他刚才就告诉你了”
–He just told you.
另外 芬奇也避免人为操纵摄像机的感觉
Another thing Fincher avoids is the sense of a human being operating the camera.
当今时代 许多导演故意让摄像机猛烈晃动
At a time when many filmmakers are deliberately adding camera shake
或者故意犯拍摄错误制造出一种有人在操控镜头的感觉
or mistakes to their shots to make it seem like there was a person there,
而芬奇恰恰反其道而行之
Fincher is doing the opposite.
“我就喜欢这种全知的风格
–I just loved the idea of this omniscience
让摄像机先从这里移出 再移进房间 流畅自然
like the camera, it just goes over here kind of perfectly and then it kinda goes over there kind of
不掺一丝个人感情色彩
and it doesn’t have any personality to it,
仿佛在说 发生的一切冥冥之中早已注定”
it’s very much like what’s happening was doomed to happen.
有时候你很难讲某个镜头到底是人为操控动态设备操控 还是电脑动画做出来的
Sometimes you can’t tell whether a shot was human-controlled, motion-controlled or CGI.
最终呈现出的 就是预兆感如同《了望酒店》中呈现的一样
The final effect is ominous, like something out of the Overlook Hotel.
剪辑上 他也很少切进特写 除非真的必要
He also doesn’t cut to a close-up unless he needs to.
尽管芬奇的特写和嵌入镜头非常独特且具辨识度
Even though Fincher’s close-ups and inserts are really distinctive,
他却很少使用 因为……
he rarely cuts in because…
“每当你切入特写镜头
every time you go to a close-up…
观众都会知道:“看这个 这个镜头很重要”
… the audience knows: “Look at this, this is important.”
所以一定要非常小心谨慎地选用使用的时机”
You have to be very very cautious and careful about when you choose to do it.
任何一场戏 他只会用一到两个特写镜头
In any given scene, he’ll only go to the close-up for one or two moments.
而随着导演的作品越来越多他使用特写镜头的频率也越来越低
And the more he’s directed, the less often he’s done it.
“如果你当国务卿 一定能当得很好”
–You’d have made a great Secretary of State.
正因为在别处不滥用这些特写才精准地加强了表现力
These moments gain power precisely because he withholds the shot elsewhere.
最后 如果可以的话 他绝对不会移动摄像机
And lastly, he never moves the camera if he can help it.
“我想用尽可能全面的镜头
–I wanted to present, in as wide a frame,
尽可能简单的情形去呈现
and in as unloaded a situation as possible,
“像是那种单纯的舞台幕前的表现方式
as much of a kinda simple proscenium way,
这就是现在正在发生的情况这就是这个人物所看到的一切”
this is what’s going on, this is what this guy sees.
“你不专心”
–You don’t pay attention.
“这是什么?”
–What is this?
所以 思考一下他给自己设定的限制
So consider all these restrictions he gives himself.
没有手持摄影 没有人为操控感
No handheld, no human operating, .
不切不必要的特写镜头 没有动机就不移动画面
no unnecessary close-ups, no unmotivated camera moves
现在来给他一场只有对话的戏
Now let’s give him a scene of just people talking.
他能否把它拍得具有电影感呢?
Can he make it cinematic?
“凶手在他下方放了一个水桶 一直喂食
–Killer put a bucket beneath him, kept on serving.
“验尸官说这原本会持续超过12个小时”
–Coroner said this could have gone on for more than 12 hours.
没错 对话并不具电影感 但冲突有
Oh yeah. Talking isn’t cinematic but drama is.
这场戏是关于三个人 一个站着 两个坐着
This scene is about three people, one standing, two sitting.
芬奇做的第一件事是将我们带入场景 听这两人对话
The first thing Fincher does is bring us over here to listen to these two.
仅仅根据景别 我们就可以得知这件事对于桑摩赛比较重要
Just from shot sizes we can tell this is more important to
但警长和桑摩赛两人都不妥协
Somerset than to the chief, but neither will budge.
当桑摩赛想要放下这个案子不管的时候“我希望能被派到别的案子”
When the detective tries to drop the case… –I’d like to be reassigned.
拍警长和桑摩赛的角度变了
… we shift to a different angle of the chief and of Somerset.
这提示我们 米尔斯正在想办法切入这场对话
This is our clue that Mills is trying to work his way in.
但桑摩赛的视角完全没有贴近轴线 忽视了他
But Somerset, who’s looking nowhere near the eyeline, ignores him.
当这个年轻的警探要插话的时候:“嘿 伙计 我就在这里
When the younger detective cuts in: –Hey man, you know, I’m right here,
“你有什么屁话可以对着我讲”
–you can say that shit to my face.
摄像机回到了这个角度 桑摩赛终于面对着他
We go back to this angle, with Somerset finally facing him.
这让警长处在了两难之中 而他必须做出抉择
This puts the chief in a tough spot, and he has to put his foot down.
“- 把这案子给我- 不 我要把你派到别的案子”
–Give it to me. –No I’m putting you on something else.
这是这场戏中警长唯一一个特写
This is the only close-up of the chief in this scene
而芬奇把它留到了米尔斯被完全打发走
and Fincher saves it for the moment Mills gets totally dismissed.
所以即使没有声音 你也懂这场戏的重点和目的
So even without sound, you understand the purpose of this scene.
芬奇引导着我们的视线 先是这段冲突
Fincher has taken your eyes and brought them here to see this drama,
然后是这一冲突最后移到这里来看结局
here to see this one, and then here for the final shutdown.
三个人物 三种关系都布置好 让摄影机带着观众看
Three characters, three relationships, all staged for the camera to see.
“我很抱歉 老兄”
–I’m sorry, old buddy.
第二次这三个人物会面看看米尔斯的位置坐得有多远
The next time these characters are together, look how far away Mills is sitting.
不过当桑摩赛一开始阐述他的理论:
But once Somerset starts to explain his theory:
“暴食
–Gluttony,
“贪婪”
greed.
芬奇将摄像机移到这里在一幅画面中展示他们互相对视
Fincher brings us over here to show them looking at each other in the same frame.
即使他们一起工作的时间十分钟都不剩了
Even though they don’t work together for another 10 minutes,
但就是从此刻 他们开始互相尊重
it’s here that they begin to respect each other.
《七宗罪》中 任何一个同时有其中两个人物的镜头
You can actually watch Se7en and see the progression of this relationship
都体现了同样的关系进展
in any shot that has the two of them together,
最终以这个镜头结束 这种导演技法堪称一流
ending with this one. THAT is good directing.
随着芬奇经验越来越丰富 他也越来越细致入微
And as Fincher has gotten older, he’s actually gotten more subtle.
比如 他如今十分擅长利用画面中空着的部分
For instance, now he’s really good at using emptiness in the frame.
所以他会把画面切到一张没人坐着的椅子
So he’ll cut to a chair with no one in it.
“爱德华多曾经是哈佛投资人协会的社长而他之前也是我最好的朋友”
–Eduardo was the president of the Harvard Investors Association and he was also my best friend.
或是拍摄空荡荡的地方来表示丈夫不在
or an empty space for an absent husband.
“这太糟糕了 我们得谈谈
–That’s too bad, we’re gonna talk about this.
“这什么时候会结束?”
And when is it gonna be finished?
他会将整个场景都凝缩于人物注释着镜头的片刻
He’ll build an entire scene to a moment when someone looks into the lens.
快乐
Happy.
“我非常高兴能来到这里 感谢邀请”
–I’m very glad to be here, thank you for having me.
或是害怕
Or terrified.
“当心一点 山姆”
–Take care of yourself, Sam.
他还会展示某个人物的冰箱里有些什么
And he’ll show us the inside of someone’s fridge.
的确 芬奇有着绝不将就的名声
It’s true that Fincher has a reputation for being uncompromising,
一场戏可以拍上五六十次 甚至九十九次
shooting 50 or 60 or 99 takes of a scene.
“双重彩虹?哦 天啊 这预示着什么?”
–Double rainbow? Oh my God, what does it mean?
不过 看优秀导演的作品感觉真棒
At the same time, it’s great to watch someone who’s actually good at their job.
一个仅用一个剪切就将人物关系主导地位的转换表现出来的导演
Someone who can show the power relationship change with a single cut.
“把电话线切了”
–Kill the phones.
一个愿意将这种场景展现得淋漓尽致的导演
Someone who’s willing to let this moment play in full…
或者就只是让我们看到人物从A点走到B点
… or just let us watch the characters walk from point A to point B.
即使你不喜欢芬奇
Even if you don’t like Fincher,
这些也是目前最好的导演手法之一而且绝对值得研究
this is some of the best craft in directing right now and it is absolutely worth studying.
“我不是十二宫杀手
–I’m not the Zodiac,
“而且就算我是 我也肯定不会告诉你”
and if I was, I certainly wouldn’t tell you.
而如果你喜欢他 那么请看他对你的看法
And if you do like him, here is what he thinks of you.
“我觉得人都是变态
–I think people are perverts.
“我一直这么觉得 一直以来……
I’ve maintained that, that’s been..
“这都是我导演生涯的根基”
that’s the foundation of my career.

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视频概述

由美籍华裔电影制作人和自由编辑托尼·周制作的关于电影的一系列短片。这些短片从电影的某一个角度着手来进行讨论,对于普通影迷增进对电影的了解有难得的价值。此次是讲大卫·芬奇用它独特的拍摄理念,将观众带入情节视角,尤其是《七宗罪》就是很好的体现

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翻译译者

Philovist

审核员

NL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPAloq5MCUA

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