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David Deutsch讲述我们在宇宙中的位置 – 译学馆
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David Deutsch讲述我们在宇宙中的位置

David Deutsch: Chemical scum that dream of distant quasars

主办方要求我们大胆陈述 做到语不惊人死不休
We’ve been told to go out on a limb and say something surprising.
因此我会努力达到这一点
So I’ll try and do that,
但是我想先从大家都知道的两件事说起
but I want to start with two things that everyone already knows.
第一件事
And the first one, in fact,
事实上这是
is something that has been known
从有记录的历史以来就众所周知的事
for most of recorded history,
这就是地球
and that is, that the planet Earth,or the solar system,
或者太阳系或者说我们的环境 或诸如此类
or our environment or whatever,
独一无二地适合维持我们的进化 或者说创造
is uniquely suitedto sustain our evolution —
正如我们之前所理解的一样–
or creation, as it used to be thought —
适合我们当下的生存 最重要的是我们未来的生存
and our present existence,and most important, our future survival. Nowadays,
今天这个概念有一个戏剧化的名字:
this ideahas a dramatic name: Spaceship Earth.
太空船地球 在这个概念里 太空船之外
And the idea thereis that outside the spaceship,
宇宙不可调和地充满敌意
the universe is implacably hostile,
而其内部是我们所赖以生存的一切
and inside is all we have,all we depend on,
我们只有一次机会:如果我们将我们
and we only get the one chance:
的太空船折腾坏了
if we mess up our spaceship,
我们将无处可去
we’ve got nowhere else to go. Now,
第二件大家都知道的事是
the second thingthat everyone already knows
与我们在人类历史中大部分
is that, contrary to what was believed
时间所坚信的相反
for most of human history,
人类事实上并不是存在的中心
human beings are not, in fact,the hub of existence.
大家都知道Stephen Hawking说过
As Stephen Hawking famously said,
我们只是存在于一个典型
we’re just a chemical scum
星球表面的一些化学污垢
on the surface of a typical planet
这个典型星球环绕着一个典型恒星绕行太空
that’s in orbit around a typical star,
而这个典型恒星位于一个典型银河系的边缘
which is on the outskirts of a typical galaxy, and so on. Now,
以此类推 大家都知道的两件事当中
the first of those two things
的第一件 大概是说我们存在于
that everyone knows is kind of saying
一个非常不典型的地方
that we’re at a very un-typical place,
独一无二的适合性等
uniquely suited and so on,
而第二件事却说我们存在于一个典型的地方
and the second one is saying that we’re at a typical place. And,
尤其是当你将这两件事当作生命中
especially if you regard these two
深刻的真理
as deep truths to live by
并以此作为你人生决策的依据
and to inform your life decisions,
那么他们似乎彼此有些冲突
then they seem a little bitto conflict with each other.
但是这也没法改变他们都是彻底错误的这一事实
But that doesn’t prevent themfrom both being completely false.
(观众笑声)
(Laughter)
他们就是错误的
And they are.
让我从第二件事说起:
So let me start with the second one:
典型 让我们看一下–这是一个典型的地方吗?
“Typical.” Well, is this a typical place? Well,
让我们看一下四周 如你所见 随便超哪个方向望去
let’s look around, you know,look in a random direction,
我们会看到一堵墙 还有一些化学污垢 —
and we see a wall, and chemical scum —
(观众笑声)–
(Laughter)
而这在宇宙中一点也不典型
and that’s not typicalof the universe at all.
你所要做得是
All you’ve got to do is go
朝着同一个方向前行数百英里然后往回看
a few hundred miles in that same direction
你将根本
and look back,
不会看到任何墙或者化学污垢
and you won’t see any walls or chemical scum at all —
— 你所能看到是一个蓝色星球
all you see is a blue planet.
如果你继续前行
And if you go further than that,
你会看到太阳
you’ll see the Sun,
太阳系 以及恒星等等
the solar system and the stars and so on,
然而这在宇宙中仍然
but that’s still not typicalof the universe,
不算典型 因为恒星存在于星系中
because stars come in galaxies.
宇宙中的大部分地方
And most places in the universe,
或者说宇宙中一个典型的地方
a typical place in the universe,
不是任何靠近星系的地方
is nowhere near any galaxies.
因此我们继续前行
So let’s go out further,
直到我们走出星系
till we’re outside the galaxy, and look back,
然后再往回看 是的 你会看到巨大的星系
and yeah, there’s the huge galaxy
它螺旋形的触手展现在我们面前
with spiral arms laid out in front of us.
而到达此地 我们已经跨越了十万光年
And at this point, we’ve come100,000 light-years from here.
但是我们仍然一点也没有靠近宇宙中的典型地方
But we’re still nowhere neara typical place in the universe.
要到达典型地方
To get to a typical place,
你需要跨越此距离的1000倍
you’ve got to go 1,000 times as far as that,
直到你到达星系与星系中间的地方
into intergalactic space.
那里看上去是什么样子呢?
And so, what does thatlook like –“typical?”
典型的那么宇宙中一个典型的地方看上去是怎样的呢?
What does a”typical” placein the universe look like? Well,
在这里 TED不惜代价
at enormous expense,TED has arranged
给大家安排了一次高清晰的 模拟的星系间空间的
a high-resolution immersionvirtual reality rendering
真实体验 — 星系间空间的景观
of the view from intergalactic space.
请将电灯关闭
Can we have the lights off, please,
我们就可以看到了
so we can see it? Well,
不太准确 不是非常完美
not quite, not quite perfect.
–看到了吗?星系间的空间 –星系间的空间是彻底黑暗的 极端地黑暗 ♪
You see, intergalactic spaceis completely dark, pitch dark.
这个空间是如此的黑暗
It’s so dark,
假使你正盯
that if you were to be looking
着离你最近的恒星
at the nearest star to you,
这颗恒星正好发生超新星爆炸
and that star were to explodeas a supernova,
当光线射到你的时候
and you were to be staring directly at it
假使你正直勾勾地盯着它看
at the moment when its light reached you,
你甚至连微弱的闪光都无法看到
you still wouldn’t be ableto see even a glimmer.
宇宙就是如此的巨大和如此的黑暗
That’s how big and how darkthe universe is.
这还没有考虑超新星爆炸的光线是
And that’s despite the factthat a supernova is so bright,
如此强烈和明亮
so brilliant an event,
你在距离它数光年的地方会立马
that it would kill you stone dead at a range of several light-years.
毙命
(Laughter)
但是在星系间的空间
And yet, from intergalactic space,
它是如此的遥远 你甚至无法看见
it’s so far away you wouldn’t even see it.
那里也非常寒冷–
It’s also very cold out there —
不超过绝对零度三度
less than three degreesabove absolute zero.
什么都没有
And it’s very empty.
那里真空
The vacuum there is one million
的浓度比 目前地球上最好的技术可以产生
times less dense than the highest vacuum
的真空浓度的100万分之一还要小
that our best technology on Earthcan currently create.
所以这就是宇宙里一个典型的地方与这儿如何地不同
So that’s how differenta typical place is from this place.
也就是说我们现在所处的这个地方是如此地不典型
And that is how un-typical this place is.
请开灯
So can we have the lightsback on please? Thank you. Now,
谢谢 那么我们如何了解
how do we know
距离我们如此遥远的一个环境呢?
about an environment that’s so far away and so different
与我们所熟悉的一切相比 它是如此不同
and so alien from anything we’re used to? Well,
如此陌生 地球
the Earth —
–我们的环境 以我们这一形式存在
our environment, in the form of us —
— 创造知识
is creating knowledge. Well,
这又意味着什么呢?
what does that mean? Well,
向我们刚去过的地方的更远处望去–
look out even furtherthan we’ve just been —
我的意思是从这里开始
I mean from here, with a telescope —
利用望远镜– 你会看到类似恒星的东西 他们叫做类星体
and you’ll see things that looklike stars, they’re called quasars.
类星体原意是指类似恒星的物体
“Quasars” originally meant”quasi-stellar object,”
也就是说是指看上去有点像恒星的物体
which means”things that looka bit like stars.”
(观众笑声)但是
(Laughter)
他们不是恒星
But they’re not stars.
我们已经知道他们是什么了
And we know what they are.
数十亿年前 数十亿光年之外
Billions of years agoand billions of light-years away,
一个星系中心的物质朝着
the material at the centerof a galaxy collapsed
一个超级巨大的黑洞塌陷
towards a super-massive black hole.
随后密集的磁场对重力塌陷中的
And then intense magnetic fields
一些能量产生了导向作用
directed some of the energyof that gravitational collapse
其中一些物质
and some of the matter back out
以巨大的喷射流的形式逃离
in the form of tremendous jets,
照亮了宏伟的太空
which illuminated lobes
— 我认为相当于一千亿
with the brilliance of — I think it’s a trillion — suns. Now,
个太阳的光亮 然而
the physics
与这样一个喷射流的物理相比 我们人类大脑的物理
of the human brain could hardly be more unlike
大相径庭到极点
the physics of such a jet.
在这样的环境里 我们连一瞬间
We couldn’t survive for an instant in it.
都无法生存 当我们试着描述那样的喷射
Language breaks downwhen trying to describe
流中的状况 语言变得无法表达
what it would be likein one of those jets.
这可能有点像经历一次超新星爆炸
It would be a bit like experiencinga supernova explosion,
但是是在零距离接触并且将数百万年的能量
but at point-blank range and for millions of years at a time.
集中到同一时间爆发 (观众笑声)
(Laughter)
但是 这个喷射流发生得如此地精确
And yet, that jet happenedin precisely such a way
以至于数十亿年后
that billions of years later,
在宇宙的另一端
on the other side of the universe,
一些化学污垢可以准确地描述
some bit of chemical scumcould accurately describe
建立模型 并预测和解释 最重要的是
and model and predictand explain, above all —
–你可以找得到参考
there’s your reference —
— 现实中曾经发生过的事
what was happening there, in reality.
一个物理系统 大脑 包含了另外一个物理系统的准确工作模型
The one physical system, the brain,contains an accurate working model
— 类星体
of the other, the quasar.
不仅仅是一个粗浅的图像
Not just a superficial image of it,
虽然也包含图像
though it contains that as well,
而且还包含解释性的模型 表达同样的数学
but an explanatory model, embodying the samemathematical relationships
关系和一样的因果结构
and the same causal structure. Now,
这就是知识
that is knowledge.
如果这还不够让你惊讶的话
And if that weren’t amazing enough,
一个结构表达另外一个的准确性
the faithfulness with which the one structure resembles the other
正随着时间不断提高
is increasing with time.
这就是知识的增长
That is the growth of knowledge. So,
因此 物理规律拥有这样一个特殊的性质物体
the laws of physicshave this special property,
不管他们彼此
that physical objects as unlike each other
多么相异
as they could possibly be,
却仍然能够表现同样的数学和因果结构
can nevertheless embody the samemathematical and causal structure
而且随着时间增长表现得越来越多
and to do it more and more so over time.
因此我们是与众不同的化学污垢
So we are a chemical scumthat is different.
这一化学污垢拥有普适性
This chemical scum has universality.
它的结构准确度越来越高地包容着
Its structure contains,with ever-increasing precision,
世界万物的结构
the structure of everything.
这个地方 不是宇宙中任何其他地方
This place, and not other placesin the universe,
在它自身内部 成为一个包容
is a hub which contains
了其他一切宇宙万物结构性和因果性精髓的中心
within itself the structural and causal essence
因此
of the whole of the restof physical reality.
意义深远的是
And so, far from being insignificant,
物理规律允许这一现象
the fact that the laws of physics allow this
抑或甚至主导了它的发生这一事实
or even mandate that this can happen,
是关于物理世界的最重要的事情之一
is one of the most important thingsabout the physical world.
那么太阳系–
Now how does the solar system —
我们的环境 以我们的形式–
our environment, in the form of us —
是如何获取这样一个与宇宙其他部分的特殊关系的呢? Stephen
acquire this special relationshipwith the rest of the universe? Well,
Hawking观点中其中一个正确面–我的意思是
one thing that’s trueabout Stephen Hawking’s remark —
这是正确的 但是着重点是错的
I mean, it is true,but it’s the wrong emphasis.
其中一个正确面是 它并没有倚赖
One thing that’s true about it is
任何特殊的物理学
that it doesn’t do it with any special physics,
没有特殊的放宽 没有奇迹发生
there’s no special dispensation,no miracles involved.
它的发生只依赖于我们现在富有的三种东西
It does it simply with three things that we have here in abundance.
其中一个是物质
One of them is matter,
因为知识的增长是一种信息处理的形式
because the growth of knowledge is a form of information processing.
信息处理需要计算 计算需要电脑–
Information processing is computation,computation requires a computer —
现有的知识下不可能不需要物质来制造电脑
there’s no known way of makinga computer without matter.
我们还需要能量来制造电脑 最重要的是
We also need energy to makethe computer, and most important,
要使得用来记录我们所发现知识的
to make the media, in effect,onto which we record
媒介工作
the knowledge that we discover.
第三种东西 较难感触得到 但是在开放式的知识
And then thirdly,less tangible but just as essential
和解释的开发中
for the open-ended creationof knowledge, of explanations,
同样关键的是证据
is evidence. Now,
我们的环境中充满了证据
our environmentis inundated with evidence.
但是我们常常忽略了测试–比如
We happen to get round to testing, let’s say,
牛顿的地球引力定律
Newton’s Law of Gravity,
–大约是在300年前提出的
about 300 years ago.
但是我们习以为常的证据 从数十亿年前
But the evidence that we used to do that
就在地球上的每个角落里不断坠落
was falling down on everysquare meter of the Earth
也会在接下来的数十亿年
for billions of years before that,
里继续坠落
and will continue to fall for billions of years afterwards.
其他科学也同样如此
And the same is truefor all the other sciences.
就我们所知
As far as we know,
发掘所有科学大部分基本真理的证据
evidence to discover the most fundamental truths
就在我们的星球上等待我们获取
of all the sciences is here just for the taking, on our planet.
我们所在的地方充满了证据
Our location is saturated with evidence
还有物质和能量
and also with matter and energy.
而在星系间的空间中
Out in intergalactic space,
这三个 创造开放式知识的前提条件
those three prerequisitesfor the open-ended creation of knowledge
存在的可能性极端之小
are at their lowest possible supply —
正如我所说
as I said, it’s empty,
那里空无一物
it’s cold and it’s dark out there.
寒冷 黑暗 抑或不是如此?
Or is it?
事实上 这只是另外一个狭隘的误解
Now actually, that’s justanother parochial misconception.
(观众笑声)
(Laughter)
假想在星系间空间有一个立方体存在
Because imagine a cube out therein intergalactic space,
与我们的房屋般大小
the same size as our home,the solar system.
太阳系 以我们的标准来看 这个立方体非常空
Now that cube is very emptyby human standards,
但是它事实上仍然包含着超过百万吨的物质
but that still means that it contains over a million tons of matter.
一百万吨足够建造一个
And a million tons is enough to make, say,
比方说 自给自足的空间站
a self-contained space station,
在这个空间站内聚居着一群科学家
on which there’s a colony of scientists
他们致力于不断创造 开放式的知识
that are devoted to creating an open-ended stream of knowledge, and so on. Now,
等等 然而 现在的科技甚至
it’s way beyond present technology
连从星系间空间收集氢气 和将其转化成别的
to even gather the hydrogenfrom intergalactic space
元素等都远不能做到
and form it into other elements and so on.
但问题是 在一个可理解的宇宙中
But the thing is,in a comprehensible universe,
如果某事是物理定律所允许的
if something isn’t forbiddenby the laws of physics,
那么在我们知道如何运作的情况下 什么会妨碍我们去实践它呢?
then what could possibly prevent us from doing it, other than knowing how?
换句话说 这是一个关于知识的问题 而不是关于资源
In other words, it’s a matterof knowledge, not resources.
同样 如果我们可以做到的话 那么我们将自动获得能源供给
If we could do that, we’d automaticallyhave an energy supply,
因为这里的变化将是核反应堆–
because this transmutationwould be a fusion reactor.
证据?
And evidence? Well,
还是一样 对人类的感官来说那里漆黑一片
again, it’s dark out thereto human senses,
但是你所需要做的是 拿起一个望远镜
but all you’ve got to dois take a telescope,
甚至是今天的技术设计
even one of present-day design,
往外看去 你会看到我们从这儿看到
look out, and you’ll see the same galaxies
的同样的星系
as we do from here.
如果你有一个更强大的望远镜
And with a more powerful telescope,
你将能看到恒星和行星
you’ll be able to see starsand planets in those galaxies,
在那些星系里 你可以进行天体物理学研究 了解物理定律
you’ll be able to do astrophysics and learn the laws of physics.
在你所处的位置 你可以制造粒子加速器
And locally there you could buildparticle accelerators,
研究初级粒子物理学 化学等
and learn elementary particle physicsand chemistry, and so on.
也许最难做的科学研究是生物学实地考察
Probably the hardest science to do would be biology field trips —
因为需要花费
(Laughter)
数百万年才能往返
because it would takeseveral hundred million years
最近的有生命的星球
to get to the nearestlife-bearing planet and back.
但是我必须告诉你 — 对不起 Richard–
But I have to tell you –and sorry, Richard —
但是我从来都不是那么喜欢生物学实地考察
but I never did like biologyfield trips much,
我想我们
(Laughter)
可以每数百万年
and I think we can just about make do
才进行一次
with one every few hundred million years.
(观众笑声)
(Laughter)
因此事实上 星系间空间并不具备创造开放式知识的
So in fact, intergalactic spacedoes contain all the prerequisites
前提条件
for the open-ended creation of knowledge.
任何一个这样的立方体 在宇宙中任何地方
Any such cube anywhere in the universe
都可以成为跟我们一样的中心
could become the same kindof hub that we are,
如果履行这一计划的知识确实存在的话
if the knowledge of how to do sowere present there. So,
因此我们并不是唯一热情好客的地方
we’re not in a uniquelyhospitable place.
如果星系间空间可以创造出
If intergalactic spaceis capable of creating
一串开放式的解说
an open-ended stream of explanations,
那么几乎其它所有的环境都是可以的
then so is almost every other environment,
地球也一样
so is the Earth.
被污染的地球也是一样
So is a polluted Earth.
而限制性因素 这里和那里
And the limiting factor, there and here,
不是资源 因为资源很充沛
is not resources,because they’re plentiful,
而是知识
but knowledge, which is scarce.
非常匮乏 这样一个知识型的宇宙观也许–
Now this cosmic knowledge-based view may —
我认为应该–
and I think ought to —
让我们感觉非常不平凡
make us feel very special.
但同时也让我们感觉到自己的脆弱
But it should alsomake us feel vulnerable,
因为这也意味着如果没有那些必需的具体的知识来帮助
because it means thatwithout the specific knowledge
我们应对宇宙中 源源不断地挑战
that’s needed to survivethe ongoing challenges of the universe,
我们将无法生存
we won’t survive them.
仅仅是几
All it takes is
光年外的一个超新星爆炸
for a supernova to go off a few light-years away,
我们都将必死无疑
and we’ll all be dead!
Martin Rees最近刚写了一本
Martin Rees has recently written a book
关于我们人类对于所有事物的脆弱性的书
about our vulnerabilityto all sorts of things,
从天体物理学 到科学实验事故
from astrophysics, to scientificexperiments gone wrong,
还有最重要的拥有大规模杀伤性武器的恐怖主义
and most importantly, to terrorismwith weapons of mass destruction.
他认为人类文明只有50%的机率可以存活过
And he thinks that civilizationhas only a 50 percent chance
这个世纪
of surviving this century.
我想他晚些时候会在这个会上给大家讲述
I think he’s going to talk about that later in the conference. Now,
但是我认为这一问题并不适合用机率来描述
I don’t think that probabilityis the right category
但是我同意
to discuss this issue in, but I do
他就此的看法 我们可以生存下去
agree with him about this: We can survive
我们也可能
and we can fail to survive.
不会存续 但是这并不取决于机率
But it depends not on chance,
而是我们是否可以及时创造出相关的知识
but on whether we createthe relevant knowledge in time.
这种危险肯定不是前所未有的
The danger is not at all unprecedented.
物种一直都在灭绝
Species go extinct all the time.
文明也会终止
Civilizations end.
绝大多数存在过的物种和文明
The overwhelming majorityof all species and all civilizations
都以成历史
that have ever existed are now history.
如果我们想成为例外的话
And if we want to bethe exception to that,
逻辑上来看我们唯一的希望
then logically, our only hope
是利用将我们这个种群和文明与其他物种
is to make use of the one feature
区别开的这个特征 与其他一切都区别开的这个特征
that distinguishes our speciesand civilization from all the others — namely,
也就是 我们与物理定律得特殊关系
our special relationshipwith the laws of physics,
我们创造新的解释和知识的能力
our ability to createnew explanations, new knowledge —
— 成为存在的中心
to be a hub of existence.
让我将此运用到当前的一个论战中
So let me now apply thisto a current controversy,
不是因为我想提议任何特定的解决方法
not because I want to advocateany particular solution,
而只是用来阐明我所要讲述的一些事
but just to illustratethe kind of thing I mean.
这个论战就是全球暖化
And the controversy is global warming. Now,
我是一个物理学家
I’m a physicist,
但我并不是此领域的物理学家
but I’m not the right kind of physicist.
就全球暖化来说 我只是个门外汉
In regard to global warming,I’m just a layman.
对一个门外汉来说理智
And the rational thing for a layman to do
的做法是 严肃对待权威的科学理论
is to take seriouslythe prevailing scientific theory.
而根据这一理论
And according to that theory,
已经太晚了 灾难在所难免
it’s already too late to avoid a disaster,
因为 如果我们目前最好的
because if it’s true that our best option
选择是阻止二氧化碳排放的话
at the moment is to prevent CO2 emissions
例如通过东京议定书之类的
with something like the Kyoto Protocol,
限制经济活动 以及花费千亿美元
with its constraints on economic activity and its enormous cost
等巨大的代价
of hundreds of billions of dollars,or whatever it is,
那么不管如何衡量 这就已经是一个灾难了
then that is already a disasterby any reasonable measure.
倡议的行动甚至都不是
And the actions that are advocated
为解决问题
are not even purported to solve the problem,
而只是稍微推迟灾难的到来
merely to postpone it by a little.
因此灾难在所难免
So it’s already too late to avoid it,
一切都已晚或在所有人意识到这个
and it probably has been too late to avoid it
危险之前就已经太晚了
ever since before anyonerealized the danger.
上世纪70年代的时候也许就已经太晚了
It was probably alreadytoo late in the 1970s,
那时候最先进的科学理论告诉
when the best availablescientific theory was telling us
我们工业排放 将促成一个新的冰河世纪
that industrial emissions wereabout to precipitate a new ice age,
数十亿的人类将从此灭亡
in which billions would die. Now,
这一教训对我来说清晰可见
the lesson of that seems clear to me,
我不明白为什么它没有传达至公众辩论
and I don’t know why it isn’tinforming public debate.
事实是我们不可能永远知道
It is that we can’t always know.
当我们知道有一个灾难将要降临
When we know of an impending disaster,
应对这个灾难的成本
and how to solve it at a cost less
要比灾难本身小
than the cost of the disaster itself,
那么就真的没有什么好争论的
then there’s not going to bemuch argument, really.
但是没有任何预防措施 或者预防原则
But no precautionsand no precautionary principle
可以帮助我们避免我们还没有预测到的问题
can avoid problemsthat we do not yet foresee. Hence,
因此我们需要准备好去解决问题
we need a stance of problem-fixing,
而不仅仅是避免问题
not just problem-avoidance.
一盎司的预防等于
And it’s true that an ounce
一盎司的解决 这是事实
of prevention equals a pound of cure,
但是这只是在我们知道预防什么的情况下
but that’s only if we knowwhat to prevent.
如果你的鼻子被打了一拳
If you’ve been punched on the nose,
医学不会教你
then the science of medicine does not consist of teaching you
如何闪躲
how to avoid punches.
拳头
(Laughter)
如果医学不再研究治病的方法 而是仅仅研究预防
If medical science stopped seeking curesand concentrated on prevention only,
那么它将几乎一事无成
then it would achievevery little of either.
目前整个世界都在不计成本
The world is buzzing at the moment
地忙着计划来促成 气体排放量的减少
with plans to force reductionsin gas emissions at all costs.
而它应该赶紧计划如何降低温度
It ought to be buzzing with plansto reduce the temperature,
以及计划如何在温度升高之后如何生存
and with plans to liveat the higher temperature —
不是不计成本 而是有效地、廉价的计划 而这样的一些
and not at all costs,but efficiently and cheaply.
计划已经存在了
And some such plans exist,
比如在太空中
things like swarms
放置大批镜子来将太阳光反射出去
of mirrors in space to deflect the sunlight away,
以及刺激海洋生物消费更多的二氧化碳而目前
and encouraging aquatic organismsto eat more carbon dioxide.
这些都只是边缘研究
At the moment, these thingsare fringe research;
人类在应对这个问题或者广义上来说这些问题的时候
they’re not central to the human effortto face this problem,
它们起不到核心作用
or problems in general.
对于我们并未知觉的问题
And with problemsthat we are not aware of yet,
纠错的能力
the ability to put right —
–不是无限期的躲过期发生的绝对好运 —
not the sheer good luck of avoiding indefinitely —
是我们唯一的希望 不仅仅是为解决问题
is our only hope, not justof solving problems,
而是为生存
but of survival.
我们应该拿起两块石碑 在上边刻上铭文
So take two stone tablets,and carve on them.
其中一块刻上”问题是可以解决的
On one of them, carve:”Problems are soluble.”
“ 另外一块刻上”问题是不可避免的“谢谢
And on the other one, carve:”Problems are inevitable.”
(观众鼓掌)
Thank you.
(观众鼓掌)
(Applause)

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