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历史的共通性

Dan Carlin — What All of History Has in Common

历史的共通性
我记得应该是马克·吐温说的
I think it was Mark Twain who said,
“历史不会重演
“History doesn’t repeat itself,
只是惊人的相似”
But it sometimes rhymes.”
这并不是说历史是不断循环的
It’s not that history is so cyclical,
只是所有的历史中都有一个相同的元素
It’s that there’s a constant element in it.
那就是我们 对吧
And it’s us. Right?
是人类
It’s human beings.
莎士比亚那句话是怎么说的来着
What did Shakespeare say? You know,
“世界是一个舞台 一切男女不过是演员”
“All the world’s a stage and all the people merely players.”
这个舞台的布景可能会变
The tapestry is changed.
但是如果你把过去的人放到现在
But if you could pull people out of the past,
他们可能会像来自完全不同的文化
Other than the fact that they’re gonna seem like different cultures,
因为我们和他们的生长环境完全不一样
because they were raised in completely different environments.
但他们依旧还是人类 对吧
They’re still people, right?
如果用感官测试仪对他们进行测试
If you measured them with sensory equipment
他们的结果和我们是完全一致的
They’re gonna score the same.
这就是历史为什么总是相似的原因
And so that’s why it seems similar.
在过去的时候 比如说罗马共和国的末期
So when you look back, for example, at the fall of the Roman Republic
那个时代和现在有两个共同点
You have two things that are similar.
其一 都有人类
One, human beings.
所以古罗马人和我们一样有激情 欲望 和一些小缺点
So with the same passions, and desires, and foibles, and all that.
其二 是政治体系上的共同点
And then you have systems.
所以当大家说起罗马共和国 都会想到罗马帝国
So the reason people always looks at Rome, the Republican, everybody thinks empire
但其实是因为这两个年代的体制很相似
but it’s the republic that’s similar.
在罗马共和国时期已经有完善的政治体系了
It’s because when you have a government that is formed,
我们现在的政治体系就是构建在罗马共和制度之上
Cause ours was deliberately modeled on some of those,
现在和古罗马有相似的政治体系 在其中生活的也都是人类
So you have a similar system, then you throw human beings into it
所以在这两个年代可以找到很多相似的事情
You’re going to see things that are similar
因为有些规律会不断重复
Because there are patterns that are going to reemerge.
我们能够通过这种相似来预测未来吗?
Does that give you any predictive value?
当然不行
Absolutely not.
历史就没有教给我们该如何做 比如说
The history doesn’t teach us how, for example,
我特别喜欢听右翼份子总说
I love the right wing always tell you that,
我们可以从希特勒 啤酒馆暴动 绥靖政策中学到不能做什么
You know, the Hitler, and Munich, and appeasement taught you you can’t do the.
其实不会 这只告诉我们 在有希特勒存在的
No it doesn’t. It taught you what you can do with Hitler
那个环境和时期 我们会做什么
in that situation at that time.
现实中的变量让一切都不同了
The variables mess that up.
历史不能够教你如何处事
So history doesn’t teach you how to act,
但可以让我们认清自己的本质
but it can tell you a lot about who we are.
所以历史的共通性就是因为人类吗?
So it’s basically, it’s just humans really?
— 是因为人类生活在某个时期— 体系
-It’s just humans within the time frame that they happen to live- Systems .
是由于人类 和他们所生活的制度
Humans and systems.
或者人类文明中的制度
Or human systems in culture.
就算是在现在 如果把来自不同文化的人
Because you can take people, even now, from different cultures.
我是说如果你把
I mean if you took people from
来自完全不同文化的人
A completely different culture right here,
放到中非
Go to central Africa
接着把所有的美国人
And replace all the Americans tomorrow
放到中非
And take them and put them in central Africa
然后把中非人迁到美国
And take all the central Africans and put them in the United States and say,
告诉他们 你们的总统是唐纳德·特朗普
“Here’s your system, Donald Trump’s your president,
下一次中期选举是两年后
And you have a mid term election in two years.”
他们就全跑掉了
They’re gone.
你觉得这些中非人会把选票投给不同的人吗?
Do you think there’s going to be a few differences in the voting pattern?
回答这个问题 我们必须要考虑文化 体系 和我们人类自己
So you have to factor cultures, systems and us into the equation.
这就是历史为什么重要的原因
But that’s why history’s important
从历史中我们开始了解人类
Because it really teaches you about us
了解我们作为一个种族
as a species
在不同文化 不同时期的样子
Through cultures and through time.
哈 这是一种很棒的说法
Yeah that, I mean that’s a beautiful way to phrase it
我们需要了解某些历史事件
That there are historicalevents you have to know about
但其实你真正学到的
But really what you’re learning about
就是人类的本质
Is just sort of the nature of being human.
那么问题来了 人类的本质存在吗
And that’s argument, is there a human nature?
当然 大多数人都遵守一定的行为准则
But certainly, I mean, we have parameters within, which most of us operate
然后文化可能会导致这个准则发生改变
And whether the culture expandsthose parameters over time,
但是 爱依旧是爱
There’s still, I mean love is love,
憎依旧是憎 性依旧是性
Hate is hate, sex is sex.
这些特性
I mean there’s certain things that,
我们甚至能在猿类身上看到
I mean we see the similarities in primates when you look at them now.
所以这些特性就是连接我们和古埃及人之间的纽带
So that’s what connects you to an ancient Egyptian
我们和他们在其它地方不是也没有什么相似处
Where almost nothing else would, right?
他们也是人类
They’re still people.
当你在读 比如说
And when you read, for example
古罗马人写的碑文的时候
The epitaphs that the ancient Romans wrote,
这相当于他们为自己死去孩子写的墓志铭
On the equivalent of tombstonesof their children who died,
这些文字依旧可以触碰到你的心灵
It touches your heart today the way you can relate
你能够共情的唯一原因就是
The only reason you canrelate is because
如果你把一个古罗马宝宝放进时间机器里
If you took a Roman baby, and puthim in a time machine,
然后把他带到现在 抚养成为我们中的一员
And brought him now, andraised him as one of us,
他将会和我们没有任何区别
He would be indistinguishable.
反之亦然
And vise versa.
你也会喜欢把公开处刑当成娱乐
You would like watching public executions for entertainment
如果你是在中世纪长大的
If I took you as a child and raised you back in the middle ages.
嗯 我觉得就是这样
Yeah, I’m pretty sure we’re going to get back to that
其实在现代有些人依旧是这样的
You can say there’s a version of it we do now.
[笑]
[laughing]
对 就是这样 我们和中世纪人并没有本质上的区别
Yeah, exactly. We’re not that far from it, you know?
真的没有
We really aren’t.
说起来 在现在的一些地方 比如说沙特阿拉伯人
And by the way, there are parts of the world, Saudi Arabian,
政府依旧当街将犯人砍头
They’re beheading people on the streets
很多群众也在这种场合围观 起哄
And plenty of people watch and cheer and all that.
他们真的和我们有很大区别吗?
Are they that much different than us
还是说这就是体系的力量?
Or is there system?
我猜这就是你刚所说的
And I guess that’s what you would argue,
他们所在的政治体系
The system around them
导致他们为犯人被斩首而欢呼
Has just led them to cheering that, right?
文化 这也可能是文化
Culture. It’s maybe culture.
你无法逃离所在的政治体系
System lock you in.
就像共和制约束着你
Like a Republic locks you into certain things.
比如说 在古罗马
For example, in Rome, thepart that just, you know,
回溯那个年代 你会发现一切和现在惊人地相似
You look at it and you just go gosh, it looks so similar
竞选捐款 金钱的力量
Is campaign contributions, and money
和我们的时代太像了
It looks so similar
然后还有掌权者的特权
And favors with powerful people,
掌权者的影响力
And the ability of the powerful to influence.
罗马共和国历史中最吸引我的
I mean the wonderful partof Roman Republic history, for me,
就是人们的种种企图
Is when youread about the attempts.
比如说 古罗马的格拉古兄弟
For example, the people whowere known as the Gracchi,
用现在的思维来理解
The Gracchi Brothers are famous as the,
格拉古兄弟以为穷人的权益奋斗而闻名
You would call them thechampions of the poor today.
就像是伯尼·桑德斯这样的人
Maybe like you wouldsay the Bernie Sanders types or whatever.
古罗马历史让我着迷
But what I love aboutreading the Roman history,
这个时期特别棒 因为有很多关于它的记载
And Rome is great becauseyou have so much history
可供阅读和研究
that you can actually look at and study,
你会发现那个年代有人会评论
Is the people at the time would say,
“格拉古兄弟不是真正为了穷人
“That’s not what they really believe.
他们只是在哗众取宠”
They’re just trying to pander.”
“他们是被有钱人买通了”
They we’re being paid off by the Koch brothers here.
就是这样
That’s right, that’s right.
所以在读这些历史故事的时候就会觉得
And so when you read it you just go
这些行为都是政治体系导致的
That’s a systems thing, right?
当时的政治体系和现在的很像
Their system looks like our system.
由于这种制度上的相似 把本质一样的人类
And because of that you throw human beings
放进这个体系
as they always are into that system,
尽管文化让一切都不一样了
The culture part is what makes it very different.
但你依旧可以在古罗马人身上看到现代人的影子
But I mean you can see echos of who we still are today.
我们可以用历史预测未来吗
Is it a predictive tool?
完全不能
Not at all.
但在读历史的时候 就会觉得
But you do look at it and you go, gosh,
人类真是有趣的生物
We are interesting animals
可以从历史中看到千年以来人类的不同处
And I see it over thousands of years of difference.

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视频概述

著名时事评论员Dan Carlin讲述了他对于历史中共通性的看法

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收集自网络

翻译译者

IL

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审核员_BA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHz-uqQplEc

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