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为了活命宁可断腿的盲蛛 – 译学馆
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为了活命宁可断腿的盲蛛

Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive | Deep Look

美国公共电视网 数码工作室
PBS digital studios
旧金山公共广播电台
KQED
《微观深望》
Look deep
森林的地表是个竞争激烈的地方
The forest floor is a rough and tumble kind of place.
最好还是待在最顶层
It’s best to stay above it all.
这只盲蛛就是这么干的
This daddy longlegs does just that,
踩着八根高跷似的灵活长腿
on eight flexible stilts.
每根腿的末端都有多关节相连
The end of each leg is multi-jointed.
像绳子一样发挥作用
It works like a rope.
看到顶端了吗
And see the tip?
那有一个钩子
There’s a hook there.
每一步他都用钩子紧紧抓住路途中要翻越的障碍
With every step, he’s grappling his way over the obstacles in his path.
非常适合非常规地形
Perfect for off-roading.
更适合攀爬
Even better for climbing.
这家伙简直能应付任何你抛过来的东西
This guy can handle just about anything you throw at him.
前面两腿也可以当做感受器来用
Those front two legs are also used as feelers,
探索即将面对的未知物
for what’s around the next corner.
与蜘蛛不同 他们只用六只脚走路
So really, they only walk on six of their legs, unlike spiders,
顺便说一下 盲蛛本来也不是蜘蛛
which daddy longlegs are not, by the way.
他们的近亲是蝎子
Their closest cousins are scorpions.
这么宝贵的工具长腿一定要定期保养清理
Such precious tools require regular care and grooming.
但有这么长的肢体也有弊端
But there’s a downside to having these long limbs.
那就是非常容易被敌人抓住
They’re easy for enemies to grab onto.
对此 盲蛛也有解决方法
And for that, this daddy longlegs has another solution.
他只需要斩断损失 便可扬长而去
He simply cuts his losses and walks away.
我们可没有拉他的腿
We did not not pull that leg!
只是轻轻的握住 他就会断掉腿
Just the slightest grip, and he’ll drop it.
干脆利落的斩断长腿 是他的内在机制
He has a built-in mechanism to pinch it off cleanly,
只会丢失一些血淋巴
losing only a drop of hemolymph.
这叫做自切
It’s called autotomy,
主动丧失身体一部分的行为
the voluntary release of a body part.
失去的肢体可以分散注意力 救得自己一命
That loose limb can create a life-saving distraction,
但也是有代价的
but at a cost.
失去一条腿的生活可不是很轻松的事情
Life without a leg is no cakewalk.
既然失去的腿也不能再装回来
Since the limb’s not coming back,
盲蛛必须学会新的行走方式
the daddy longlegs has to learn a new way to walk.
加州大学伯克利分校的伊格纳西亚·埃斯卡兰特
Ignacio Escalante at UC Berkeley
研究了盲蛛是如何最到断腿还能继续行走的
studies how daddy longlegs do this.
这只盲蛛仍然有八条长腿
Here’s one that still has all eight legs.
如果失去一条腿
If it drops one of them…
没问题
No problem.
埃斯卡兰特把这种动作叫做”跳跑步态”
Escalante calls this movement “stotting.”
如果再失去一条腿
If it drops a second leg,
盲蛛就开始”摇摆着”行走了
the daddy longlegs starts “bobbing” to get around.
失去三条腿 他还是有办法行走
Lose a third, and he still makes it happen.
不要为他感到糟糕
Don’t feel too bad for him.
即使只剩五条腿
Even down to five legs,
盲蛛在不到一天的时间内就能恢复到原来的速度
a daddy longlegs can get back to its original speed in less than a day.
事实上 多数盲蛛在一生中都会主动的丢上几条腿
In fact, most daddy longlegs deliberately drop a couple legs in their lifetimes
来逃脱一些濒死境况
to escape certain death.
也不是什么大事 他们就那么放手了
No big deal, they just let it go.
真的 生命中是有二次机会的
So really, there are second chances in life.
偶尔还会有第三次 第四次机会
And sometimes, a third and a fourth.
大家好 我是劳伦
Hey there, it’s Lauren.
你知道谁最怕盲蛛和蜘蛛一样诡异的爬行生物吗
You know who’s afraid of creepy-crawlythings like daddy longlegs and spiders?
那就是《聪明也无妨》节目的乔·汉森
Joe Hanson of It’s Okay to Be Smart.
快换到他的频道 看看放在他肩上一只狼蛛会怎样
Hop over to his channel to see what happens when you put a tarantula on his shoulder.
感谢收看本期《微观深望》
And thanks for watching Deep Look.

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视频概述

盲蛛有着修长的如高跷般的大长腿,因此又有"长腿老爹"的别称,为了活命,经常可以自断长腿

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