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最著名的D日:诺曼底战役打响之日

D-Day

二十世纪共有36525天
There were 36,525 days in the twentieth century.
在这些日子里 没有哪天比1944年6月6日这天更重要
Of these, none was more consequential than June 6th, 1944.
D日这天 同盟国登陆已被纳粹占领的法国诺曼底
D-day the Allied invasion of Normandy in Nazi-occupied France.
诺曼底登陆没有结束二战 但如果没有这次登陆
It did not end World War II, but without it,
纳粹轴心国将不会也不可能被打败
the Nazi war machine would not and could not have been defeated.
我们当然知道正义一方的美国
We, of course, know the good guys – America,
英国及其同盟国赢得了胜利
England and its allies won.
但在1944年 是否能胜利还是未知的
But in 1944, there was no certainty of success.
事实上 对于赢得战争的质疑和信心都很多
In fact, there was just as much doubt as confidence.
温斯顿•丘吉尔的高级顾问:陆军元帅布鲁克
Winston Churchill’s senior advisor, Field Marshal Brooke,
曾在他的日记中写到
wrote in his diary,
“我对这次的整个行动都感到非常不安
“ I am very uneasy about the whole operation.
这可能是整个战争中最惨烈的一役”
It may well be the most ghastly disaster of the whole war.
布鲁克的担心不无道理
Brooke’s fears were entirely reasonable.
首先成千上万的军队
First there were tens of thousands of men and millions
数百万的物资和补给
of tons of material and supplies
必须历经上百英里
that had to be moved one hundred miles
跨越世界上最险恶的水域之一
across one of roughest bodies of water in the world
英吉利海峡
– the English Channel.
并且必须秘密进行
And it had to be kept secret.
如果德军知道盟军登陆的时间和地点
If the Germans knew where and when the allies were landing,
他们将组织攻击
they could mass forces against them.
并将法国北部海滩变成杀戮战场
and turn the beaches of northern France into killing fields.
为了防止这种情况 盟军采取了一切可能的预防措施
To prevent this, the Allies took every possibleprecaution.
他们的空军摧毁了桥梁
Their air forces destroyed bridges,
公路和铁路 以免德国将军队
roads and railways that might be used by the Germans
急调到登陆地点
to rush troops to the invasion site.
所有人都知道马上要发动进攻了
Everyone knew the attack was coming;
关键在于要让德军一直处于猜测当中
the key was to keep the Germans guessing.
广播中播放了假的无线电聊天声暗示加来附近的海滩
Fake radio chatter was broadcast to suggestthe beaches near Calais
将是登陆点
would be the landing point.
双重间谍放出假消息称盟军将在英格兰东南部集结
Double agents leaked fake details of units forming in South East England.
电影布景设计师建造假坦克
And movie set designers built phony tanks,
飞机和船只来配合
planes and ships to support the ruse of an
准备从多佛港附近通过的欺敌计谋
army preparing to cross near Dover
以骗过德国的侦察员和间谍
for the benefit of German reconnaissance pilots and spies.
德军中计了
The Germans swallowed it all.
但纳粹并不是盟军面临的唯一敌人
But the Nazis were not the only enemy the Allied forces faced.
大自然同样具有威胁性
Mother Nature was just as threatening.
23000名伞兵和滑翔步兵
The 23,000 paratroopers and glider-borne infantry jumping
跳入诺曼底需要适宜的风速 才能安全降落
into Normandy needed moderate winds to be effective.
一万两千架盟军飞机的飞行需要晴朗的天空
The twelve thousand Allied aircraft neededclear skies.
六千艘船只的登陆需要平静的海面
The invasion fleet of six thousand vesselsneeded calm seas.
还必须要退潮以暴露纳粹的障碍和地雷
And there had to be a low tide to expose Nazi obstacles and mines.
当强风和雨水开始击打海峡
When high winds and rain began pummeling the Channel,
盟军最高总司令艾森豪威尔将军
Allied supreme commander General
将6月5日的进攻时间推迟了24小时
Dwight Eisenhower postponed the invasion date of June 5th by twenty-four hours.
或许这个推迟听起来不是很要紧但它确实是
That might not sound like a significant delay,but it was.
全军都严阵以待
All forces were concentrated and ready togo.
所有计划 所有欺敌计谋 随时都可能暴露
All the plans, all the deceptions, could be exposed at any moment.
之后出现了新的预测
Then came a new forecast.
天气似乎会放晴
The weather appeared to be breaking.
可能有12小时的机会
There might be a 12-hour window of opportunity.
艾森豪威尔下令:我们出发
Eisenhower gave the order: We go.
随即 有史以来最强大的攻击舰队起航了
Immediately,the greatest invasion fleet everassembled set sail.
甲板上是超过130000名年轻士兵
On board were over 130,000 young soldiers.
想想这些士兵们的来历
Consider for a moment who these soldiers were.
美国士兵的平均年龄是21岁
The average age of the American GI was 21.
大部分从未经历过战斗 甚至没有到过离家五十英里的地方
Most had never seen combat or even been fifty miles from their hometown.
当他们驶向法国海岸线时
As they sailed toward the French shoreline,
艾森豪威尔写了一篇新闻稿以防万一
Eisenhower wrote a press release in case of catastrophe.
D-day 是一次孤注一掷的行动
D-Day was an all-or-nothing affair.
新的进攻部署将需要数月甚至数年来制定
A new invasion strategy would take months, if not years, to devise.
最初的战斗报告十分令人不安
The initial battle reports were seriouslytroubling.
在奥马哈海滩
At Omaha Beach,
悬崖上密密麻麻的战壕 加农炮和机枪俯视着他们
overlooked by cliffs honeycombed with trenches, cannon and machine-guns,
美军损失惨重
the Americans took heavy losses.
“那天早上我可能杀了好几百人”
“ I might have killed hundreds that morning,
驻守在其中一个地垒的德国士兵海恩•赛弗隆回忆道
” reflected German soldier Hein Severloh, manning one of the bunkers.
汹涌的海浪也造成了损失
The rough surf also took its toll.
美国陆军第116步兵团的哈罗德•鲍姆加登博士回忆道
Dr.Harold Baumgarten, with the U.S Army’s 116th Infantry, remembered,
“一些士兵被他们湿透的作战夹克和沉重装备拖入水下
“some of the fellows were pulled under by their wet combat jackets and heavy equipment.
我们无能为力 他们就这么淹死了”
We couldn’t help; they just drowned.”
况且 陆军特战队员们
Further along, Army Rangers also
在激烈的炮火下翻越悬崖 也遭受了重大伤亡
took heavy casualties as they scaled the cliffs under intense gunfire.
然而 到了正午 在美国海军的支援下
However by mid-day – with US naval support –
德军因为补给和弹药不足 开始撤退
the Germans low on supplies and ammunition, began to fold.
纳粹的援军 其中包括上百辆坦克
Nazi reinforcements, including hundreds of tanks,
它们本可能会扭转一切
which might have made all the difference,
直到下午才被派到诺曼底
were not ordered to Normandy until the afternoon.
在德军能够发起有效的反击之前
Before the Germans could mount an effective counter-attack,
盟军已经占领了所有五个登陆海滩
the Allies had secured all five landing beaches.
丘吉尔原以为在D-day会有两万人阵亡
Churchill had expected twenty thousand to be killed on D-Day.
幸运的是 尽管异常艰难 伤亡数要少得多
Fortunately,heavy though they were, the losses were much lower.
当天登陆海滩的156000名盟军人员中
Of the 156,000 Allied personnel who hit the beaches that day,
有一万人伤亡
ten thousand became casualties.
其中 五千人阵亡
Of these, five thousand were killed.
没有人白白牺牲
No one died in vain.
他们的牺牲意味着纳粹德国和大屠杀的结束
Their sacrifice meant an end to Nazi Germanyand the Holocaust.
还有一年的激烈战斗即将来临
Another year of bitter fighting lay ahead,
但是D-day—1944年6月6日
but D-Day – June 6, 1944, was a pivotal
是将纳粹暴政从欧洲和世界上永远抹去的
step on the road to forever removing the Nazi tyranny
道路上的关键一步
from Europe and the world.
我是《沙与钢:诺曼底登陆的新历史》的作者
I’m Peter Caddick-Adams, author of Sandand Steel: A New History of D-Day,
在普拉杰大学任职的彼得·卡迪克-亚当斯
for Prager University.

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视频概述

诺曼底登陆75周年

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

hu

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHsAmOR5m00

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