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从穆斯林的角度看十字军东征

Crusades from Muslim perspective - Medieval History DOCUMENTARY

Kings and Generals
《王侯将相》
The crusades are a series of religious wars
十字军东征是由欧洲中世纪
launched by the medieval christian European kindoms
天主教国家向中东地区的穆斯林国家
against the muslim states of the middle east
发起的一系列宗教战争
with an aim to gain Jerusalem for the christian realm.
其目的是想要将耶路撒冷收归基督教管辖
Much has been written about the crusades.
早有许多资料讨论过十字军东征
Many videos have been made on this topic.
也有很多以此为话题制作的视频
But most of them share the same shortcoming.
但这些资料大部分都有一个缺点
The majority of mainstream accounts of the crusades are extremely Eurocentric
主流上对十字军东征的描述大都以欧洲为中心
as often only christian European perspectives on this process are being described.
常常仅从欧洲天主教的视角叙述整个战争过程
In this video,
而在这个视频中
we’re going to talk about the perspective of muslim chroniclers
我们将讨论穆斯林史学家眼中的十字军东征
on the crusades and their views on the medieval Europeans in general.
以及他们对中世纪欧洲人的普遍看法
Thankfully, you don’t need to go to war to get yourself a title
感谢本次视频的赞助商Established Titles 让我们无需通过战争
and the sponsor of this video Established Titles is perfect
就能获得称号 如果你想送他人或自己一个称号的话
if you want to give that title or get it for yourself.
它真的是个不错的选择
Established Titles is a project based on a medieval Scottish custom
Establised Titles是一个基于中世纪苏格兰习俗的项目
of referring to landowners as lairds or lords and ladies in English.
那时的英文将土地的所有者称作地主或领主和夫人
They allow you to buy as little as one square foot of dedicated land
你甚至可以在这个平台购买一平方英尺大小的专属用地
so that you can call yourself a lord or lady.
这样你就可以称自己为领主或夫人了
Established Titles’s primary goal is to provide a fun way
Established Titles组织的首要目标是为保护生物多样性和林地
to preserve biodiversity and woodlands, and to that end,
提供一种有趣的方式 最终为
they support charities like One tree Planted and Trees for the Future.
One tree Planted和Trees for the Future等慈善组织提供支持
Planting a tree with each order is the best last-minute gift ever
每种一棵树都是给你所爱的人最好的礼物
and a great way to surprise your loved ones.
也是一个很棒的制造惊喜的方式
Get a couple pack for you and your partner
为你和你的伴侣来个情侣套餐
where you can get adjoining plots of land.
这样你们就可以获得相连的土地
Getting this certificate will allow you to officially change your name to lord or lady
获得这一证书你就可以正式地在你的名字上加上领主或夫人的称谓了
and get it on your credit card or plane tickets.
还可以将它们加在你的信用卡或机票上
Established Titles also provide the kindom of Scotland bundles
Established Titles还提供了一个套餐 那是一批苏格兰王国时期的土地
with a 1611 map of Scotland,
其中包括一张1611年的苏格兰地图
made by the famous English cartographer John Speed.
它是由英国著名地图制作家约翰•斯皮德制作的
They have a huge holiday sale right now with up to 80% off.
他们现在的节假日促销力度低至两折
Support our channel and become a lord or lady today.
快订阅我们的频道 今天就成为领主或夫人中的一员吧
Go to ESTABLISHEDTITLES.COM/GENERALS or click the link in the description
登录网址ESTABLISHEDTITILES.COM/ GENERALS或点击视频介绍里的链接
and use the code “generals” to get 10% off.
并输入口令“generals” 即可获得九折优惠
While the muslim and christian states have wars throughout the medieval era
虽然整个中世纪时期穆斯林世界和基督教世界总是战事不断
there was not that much contact between these two civilizations.
但是这两种文明之间并没有太多的交集
The centers of the respective civilizations were far from each other
这两种文明的核心相去甚远
and the more regular contacts were only in the peripheries,
相对频繁的交往活动也仅发生在周边
the Iberian peninsula, mediterranean islands and Anatolia.
比如伊比利亚半岛 地中海半岛和安纳托利亚半岛
And most of these contacts contained military conflict.
并且大多数的接触都少不了军事冲突
This enabled both sides to have a stereotypical view of each other.
这也使得双方对彼此产生了刻板印象
Medieval muslims thought of their contemporary Europeans
中世纪的穆斯林将同时期的欧洲人
as savage or like barbarians,
视为野蛮人或蛮族
who lacked any sense of hygiene and were backwards in their development.
还称他们没有卫生意识而且发展落后
Europe was thought of as a cold, dark and misty place.
欧洲在当时被视为冷酷黑暗而阴森的地方
At the time, the Islamic world was much bigger
相比之下 当时的伊斯兰世界更强大
wealthier and more scientifically developed.
更富裕 在科学领域也更发达
Major cities of the Islamic world like Baghdad,
伊斯兰世界的主要城市可以容纳
hosted hundreds of thousands of inhabitants,
数十万的居民 比如巴格达
while European cities like Paris and London,
但是一个欧洲的城市仅可容纳
would have had around 20,000 people each.
两万人不到 比如巴黎和伦敦
It probably only increased the condescension of muslim chroniclers
可能这也助长了穆斯林史学家在记述
writing about the medieval Europeans before and during the crusades.
十字军东征前和期间的中世纪欧洲时傲慢姿态
But the Islamic world was politically divided.
但是伊斯兰世界在政治上是四分五裂的
The Abbasid caliphate was well past its prime
阿拔斯王朝早已过了其鼎盛时期
and on the eve of the first crusade,
在第一次十字军东征前夕
it had become a mere figurehead.
这一王朝早已有名无实
Centralized power had weakened
中央集权被削弱
and many small clans based on family ties
许多基于血缘关系的小型氏族部落
thrived throughout Syria and Palestine.
也在兴起 遍布叙利亚和巴基斯坦
The Shia Fatimid caliphate
法蒂玛王朝
which ruled over Egypt at the start of the crusades,
在十字军东征初期仍统治着埃及
was also on the decline on the eve of the first crusade
不过在第一次东征前也开始走下坡路了
and had its own fair share of problems.
而且王朝本身还存在着一些政权纷争问题
The power on the rise in the middle east were the Seljuk Terks.
而同时中东的塞尔柱土耳其势力却在崛起
By the mid 11th century,
到11世纪中叶
they governed over the Abbasid caliphate in everything but name
除了名字外 这股势力统治着阿拔斯王朝的一切
and established the Rum Sultanate of Seljuk in Anatolia from formerly Byzantine territories.
还在安纳托利亚半岛内前君士坦丁的领土上建立了鲁姆苏丹国
Right on the eve of the crusader invasion,
就在十字军入侵前夕
the Islamic world had become subject to losses of its main political leaders.
伊斯兰世界开始逐步失去其主要的政治领袖
In 1092, the Seljuk Vizier Nizam al-Mulk
1092年 塞尔柱的大臣尼扎姆·穆尔克
the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadi and the Seljuk Sultan Malik-Shah, died.
阿拔斯的哈里发穆克塔迪和塞尔柱的苏丹马利克•沙阿相继去世
Two years later, the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir died,
两年后 法蒂玛王朝的哈里发穆斯坦希尔也去世了
along with his Vizier Badr al-Jamali.
随之而去的还有大臣巴德尔·贾马利
Such losses only worsened the disarray in the Islamic world
这些领袖的离世使得原本动荡的伊斯兰局势进一步恶化
and made the daunting task of the crusaders to conquer Jerusalem more realistic.
也让十字军更有可能实现占领耶路撒冷这一原本艰巨的任务
According to mainstream historiography,
根据主流史学记载
the era of the crusades started with the call of Pope Urban II
十字军东征始于教皇乌尔班二世
at the Council of Clermont in 1095
1095年克莱蒙会议上的一次演讲
to rise up and save Jerusalem from muslims and protect Constantinople.
目的是为了鼓动民众从穆斯林手中夺回耶路撒冷并保护君士坦丁堡
The first crusade was successfully regaining western Anatolia for the Byzantine empire,
第一次东征成功地为拜占庭帝国收复了安纳托利亚的西部
and most importantly,
最重要的是
in the capture of Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Odessa
在占领了耶路撒冷 的黎波里 安条克 敖德萨
and other territories in the Levant,
和黎凡特其他领地后
which eventually led to the establishment of the kindom of Jerusalem,
他们最终在这些地方建立起了耶路撒冷王国
the counties of Tripoli and Odessa, and the principality of Antioch.
的黎波里国 敖德萨国 和安条克公国
The second crusade was a failure.
但第二次东征失败了
It started as a reaction to the fall of the county of Odessa,
此次东征始于敖德萨的沦陷 为作出反击
as French and German armies headed by their kings, moved into Anatolia,
法国和德国的军队在他们国王的带领下向安纳托利亚进攻
where they were destroyed by the Seljuks.
但他们在那被塞尔柱人击败了
The remainder of the crusader’s force perished
余下的十字军军队也在攻占大马士革期间
during and after the failed siege of Damascus.
和之后逐渐瓦解
The failure of the second crusade ultimately led
第二次东征的失败最终也导致了
to the muslim forces commanded by Saladin Ayyubid regaining Jerusalem,
穆斯林军队的形成 军队由萨拉丁•阿尤金组建并且重新夺回了耶路撒冷
which became the key factor behind the mobilization for the third crusade.
而这也成为发起第三次东征背后重要的原因
This time the crusaders were more successful
相比之前 这一次十字军取得了一定的胜利
as some of the iconic medieval European monarchs
因为一些中世纪欧洲极具代表性的君主
like Frederick Barbarossa and Richard the Lionheart, played an important role in it.
在其中发挥了重要的作用 比如腓特烈一世 狮心王理查德一世
The crusaders managed to regain major parts of the Levant and captured Akko,
十字军成功地收复了黎凡特的主要地区 还占领了阿卡
but the ultimate prize, Jerusalem, was protected by Saladin.
但是他们最终的目标耶路撒冷仍在萨拉丁的统治下
The Treaty of Jaffa was signed between Richard and Saladin in 1192,
1192年理查德和萨拉丁签署了《雅法条约》
which recognized Saladin’s control over Jerusalem
承认萨拉丁对耶路撒冷的统治
who pledged to allow unarmed christian pilgrims and merchants
同时萨拉丁允许非武装的基督教朝圣者和商人
to visit the holy city.
进入这座圣城
The following crusades did not do much better
后来的十字军行动也并没有
to alter the status quo in the Levant.
更好的扭转黎凡特的局面
The original purpose of the crusades was forgotten
十字军东征也早已忘记其初衷
so much that instead of attacking Jerusalem,
比起占领耶路撒冷
at one point the crusader army got meddled in internal Byzantine affairs
十字军当时选择插手拜占庭的内政
and captured Constantinople,
占领君士坦丁堡
inflicting an immense blow on the eastern Roman empire at the time
给这个东罗马帝国造成了巨大的打击
when it was struggling to contain the ever-increasing Turkic threat.
当时这个帝国还在竭力遏制土耳其与日俱增的威胁
In 1291,
1291年
the Mamluks of Egypt destroyed the remnants of the crusader states in the Levant,
埃及的马穆鲁克人在黎凡特击败十字军的残余部队
putting an end to the crusading period from the European perspective.
在欧洲人眼中 十字军东征就此结束
The view of the muslim world on crusades significantly differs from the christian sources.
但是穆斯林眼中的十字军东征与基督教史料中的大为不同
First of all, muslims did not see the crusades as a process
首先 穆斯林教徒并不认为十字军东征是一场
starting after the speech of Pope Urban in 1095,
始于乌尔班二世1095年演讲的战争
but rather as a continuation of the christian or Frankish aggression
而是基督教或法兰克世界对穆斯林领土的继续扩张
on muslim lands from the Iberian Peninsula to Sicily.
包括从伊比利亚半岛一直到西西里半岛
Similarly for muslims,
同样 对于穆斯林来说
the Frankish aggression did not end with the fall of Akko in 1291
法兰克入侵并没有随着1291年阿卡的沦陷而结束
but continued throughout the medieval era,
而是持续了整个中世纪时期
with events like the Reconquista
其中 收复失地运动
arguably all the way until the rise of the Ottoman empire
可以说一直在持续 直到奥斯曼帝国崛起为
as a state powerful enough to protect the Islamic realm.
强大到足以保护伊斯兰世界的国家时战争才结束
It is notable that the muslims of the Levant
值得注意的是 黎凡特的穆斯林教徒
who were at the receiving end of the first crusade,
也就是第一次十字军东征主要的征讨对象
at first, thought of the invaders as another mercenary army
一开始只是将这些入侵者视为拜占庭雇来
sent by the Byzantines to plunder their lands.
掠夺他们领地的雇佣军
Only after understanding that this time the threat was coming from Europe,
只有在了解到这一次的威胁是来自欧洲之后
the Arab chroniclers started referring to the crusading armies as Franks.
阿拉伯史学家才开始将十字军称为法兰克人
One of the first muslim chroniclers to write about the crusades
最早记录十字军的史学家之一
was a legal scholar and a preacher at the great mosque of Damascus,
就是大马士革清真寺的法学家和传教士
Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami.
阿里·伊本·塔希尔·苏拉米
Six years after the crusader conquest of Jerusalem,
在十字军占领耶路撒冷六年后
he presented his account of the crusader attack in his book
他在他的著作 Kitab al-Jihad圣战之书 中
Kitab al-Jihad, the book of Holy war,
给出了他对十字军入侵的解释
which became an important part of medieval Islamic historiography.
这本书后来也成为了穆斯林中世纪史料中重要的一部分
Al-Sulami saw the first crusade
苏拉米认为 第一次十字军东征
as a continuation of the christian aggression on the Islamic world,
是基督教对穆斯林世界的继续侵略
which started with the Norman conquest of Sicily,
它始于诺曼人占领西西里岛
then continued in Spain and finally arrived in the Levant.
然后持续到西班牙 最终扩张到黎凡特
“A host of Franks swooped down upon the island of Sicily
一群法兰克人在伊斯兰教派分裂和纷争不断的时候
at a time of division and dissension.
突袭了西西里岛
And likewise they took possession of town after town in Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus).
他们同样还占领了西班牙穆斯林领地 安达卢斯 一座又一座城镇
When reports mutually confirmed the condition of this country Syria,
当十字军都互相确认了叙利亚的状况后
namely, the disagreements of its lords, the discord of its leading men,
即这是一个领主们纷争不断 领导人不和
coupled with its disorder and disarray,
并且十分混乱动荡的国家
they acted upon their decision and set out for Syria.
他们便开始采取行动向叙利亚进发
And Jerusalem was the chief object of their desires.
而耶路撒冷便是他们满足欲望的首要目标
They continued zealously in the holy war – Jihad agaist the muslims
他们在圣战中疯狂的屠杀穆斯林
until they made themselves rulers of lands beyond their wildest dreams.
直到他们超越其最初目标 成为各大领地的统治者
Ibn al-Qalanisi, a chronicler from Damascus, was 23
伊本·卡拉尼西是来自大马士革的史学家
when the Franks arrived in the Levant.
法兰克人入侵黎凡特时年仅23岁
He wrote from first-hand experience about the hardships
他根据亲身经历记录了
brought by the first and second crusades.
第一和第二次十字军东征所带来的苦难
Most of al-Qalanisi’s writing is the narration of events
卡拉尼西的大部分写作都是
that happened in this period.
对这一时期发生的事情的叙述
But we also see some observations he made about the crusaders.
但是我们也可以从中看到一些他对十字军的看法
He recognized their prowess on the battlefield.
他承认法兰克人在战场上十分骁勇善战
He spoke of fear imposed on many muslims
他还谈及了全副武装的法兰克重装甲骑兵
by heavy-armoured mounted Frankish knights.
给许多穆斯林带来的恐惧
Al-Qalanisi spoke of the crusader victory over the Seljuks
他对十字军胜利的评价高于塞尔柱人
describing fear caused by it in the Islamic camp,
还描述了十字军给伊斯兰世界带来的恐惧
“This event so shameful for Islam became known.
“众所周知 这场战争对伊斯兰世界来说就是一场耻辱
There was a real panic, dread and anxiety swelled to enormous propotions.”
真实存在的害怕 恐惧和不安笼罩着许多穆斯林人”
In general, al-Qalanisi played an important role
世人普遍认为 卡拉尼西在塑造一个
in reshaping the crusader Frankish stereotype of powerful but savage warriors
有力但野蛮的十字军刻板形象上发挥了重要的作用
who would often commit atrocities,
他们还十分凶残
which would continue to impact the writing of future chroniclers.
这种刻板形象还影响了后世史学家的记载
Usama ibn Munqidh is another notable chronicler of the crusades.
乌萨马·伊本·蒙基德是另一位著名的十字军东征史学家
This illustrious man was born at the start of the crusading movement
这位杰出的学者出生于十字军东征初期
and lived a very eventful 93 years,
而且十分的长寿 活到了93岁
acting as a close aide of different muslim dynasties and leaders including Saladin Ayyubid,
期间他还成为了穆斯林不同朝代和领导人的亲信 包括萨拉丁•阿尤比
a poet, a diplomat, a warrior.
他还是诗人 外交官 和骑士
Ibn Munqidh both fought the crusaders and befriended some of their leaders.
伊本•蒙基德一边反抗十字军 一边又结交一些十字军的领袖
He maintained the general view of the medieval christian Europeans held by the muslims
他对中世纪欧洲基督徒持有和穆斯林教徒一样的普遍看法
which was lack of refinement, low intelligence and savagery.
他认为基督徒举止粗俗 思想愚昧 生性凶残
Ibn Munqidh was critical of medical treatment used by Europeans.
伊本•蒙基德还对欧洲人的医疗方式极为不满
But like many other contemporary Arab chroniclers,
但和同代许多其他的阿拉伯史学家一样
he recognized their military capabilities,
他很认可穆斯林的军事实力
“All those who were well informed about the Frank,
“这些勇士对法兰克人了然于心
saw them as beasts, superior in courage and fighting ardor but nothing else,
他们只将这些人视为在士气和战斗热情上更胜一筹的野兽 仅此而已
just as animals are superior in strength and aggression.
就像是动物更擅于使用蛮力和攻击罢了
Franks, God cursed them, are the most cautious of all men in war.”
法兰克人才是战争中最应该小心的人 主保佑他们”
“God cursed them” was a common phrase of reference to the crusaders
“主保佑他们”是穆斯林史学家常用来特指
by the muslim chroniclers.
十字军的话
Usama ibn Munqidh had first-hand experience of military encounters with the cursaders
乌萨马·伊本·蒙基德在亚实基伦一战中就亲身经历过
as he fouhgt them at the city of Ascalon.
与十字军近身交战的情形
But as a diplomat, he also traveled to crusader states
但是作为一个外交官 他也游历过十字军的国家
and had quite warm relations with some of its leaders.
而且还和其中一些领袖建立起了友好的关系
Ibn Munqidh was said to be impressed with their courts
据说伊本•蒙基德被他们的法庭深深吸引了
and liked that they were not fully autocratic.
也很喜欢他们这那种并不完全独断专制的形式
Ibn Jubayr was argubly the muslim chronicler
伊本•朱拜尔可以说是一个最为厌恶和蔑视
with the most animosity and contempt for the crusaders.
十字军的穆斯林史学家
Being born in muslim Spain
他出生在西班牙穆斯林领地
and experiencing a slow decline of the muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula,
目睹了穆斯林势力在伊比利亚半岛上逐渐消退的过程
probably predisposed him to a negative attitude towards christian Europe.
也许这就是他对欧洲基督教持消极态度的原因
He traveled through the Levant on his way to pilgrimage to Mecca
12世纪末 在前往麦加城朝圣的路上
at the end of the 12th century.
他途经黎凡特
And the christian occupation made a huge negative impression on him.
基督徒对那的统治给他留下了不好的印象
Ibn Jubayr met refugees from Palestine and northern Syria,
伊本•朱拜尔目睹了来自巴勒斯坦和叙利亚北部的难民
who left the lands captured by the crusaders
他们被迫逃离被十字军占领的家园
and understandably carried a lot of resentment and anger towards the foreign invaders.
自然对外来侵略者都抱有极大的仇恨和愤怒
Ibn Jubayr was unhappy with muslims
他对那些继续生活在被占领的
who decided to continue living in the occupied lands
领土上的穆斯林教徒极为不满
alongside the christian invaders.
而且还是和基督教侵略者待在一起
He argued that, “There is no excuse before God for a muslim
他说到 “在主面前 任何穆斯林教徒都没有理由
to remain in a city of unbelief,
继续生活在一个没有信仰的城市
unless he is merely passing through.
除非他死去
In the land of Islam,
在伊斯兰的土地上
he finds shelter from the discomforts and evils
他看到这些恶徒搭建起来的庇护所 感到非常的不适
to which he is subjected in the countries of the christians.
他不得不在这些人的统治下生活
As for example,
比如
when he hears disgusting words spoken about the prophet,
他听到有人用污秽的言语诋毁他们的先知
particularly by the most besotted,
特别是来自那些愚蠢的异族人
or finds it impossible to cleanse himself properly,
他们很难请求主的原谅救赎
or has to live among pigs and so many other illicit things.
而且还不得不和这些猪狗不如 道德败坏的人生活在一起
Beware of entering their lands.
如果你不小心进入了他们的领地
You must seek God’s pardon and mercy for such an error.”
你必须为这一失误请求主的原谅和宽恕”
Apparently, the ocuupation of Jerusalem and many other lands in the Levant
显然 耶路撒冷和黎凡特其他地区的沦陷
failed to cause that much resentment and mobilization
并没能在除了难民营之外分裂的穆斯林世界
in the fragmented muslim world apart from the refugee communities.
引起穆斯林们太多的仇恨情绪和反抗运动
Ibn Jubayr tried to change the situation
伊本•朱拜尔试图改变这一局面
and did his utmost to rally the muslims against the occupation.
尽其所能团结穆斯林教徒反抗十字军的入侵
Another important muslim chronicler of the period
当时另一位重要的穆斯林史学家
Ibn al-Athir is mostly known for his monumental work
伊本·阿提尔以其不朽之作 不朽的历史
al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, the Consummate History.
而闻名于世
He is among the chroniclers
他也认为
who argued that the christian aggression against the Islamic world started earlier,
基督徒对穆斯林世界的进攻
when Toledo and other cities of Islamic Spain along with Sicily
早在他们占领托莱多等其他西班牙穆斯林城市和西西里岛时
were taken by the christian Europeans.
就开始了
Considered a cheif muslim historian of the crusading period,
他被视为十字军东征时期穆斯林最主要的是史学家
Ibn al-Athir used his platform to call the muslims to mobilize
伊本·阿提尔利用他的影响力号召穆斯林发起进攻
and end the occupation of the Levant.
并结束十字军对黎凡特的侵占
He wrote about the fear
他写到恐惧吞噬了
which grapples the muslim communities of cities under attack by the crusaders,
那些受到十字军入侵的穆斯林城市
along with overemphasizing the muslim successes in repelling the crusader aggression
同时一边他高度评价穆斯林在反抗十字军入侵时取得的胜利
while underplaying muslim defeats,
一边还在批评穆斯林的战败
arguably in attempts to raise muslim morale for mobilization against the infidels.
可以说 他一直在试图鼓舞穆斯林军队的士气 以反抗这些异教徒
One of the contemporaries of the latter crusade period
一位十字军东征后期同一时代的史学家
was Abu al-Fida, a participant in the sieges of Tripoli and Acre.
阿布•菲达曾参与过的黎波里和阿卡的围攻战
He presented accurate facts about atrocities committed by both sides.
他详细的描述了双方在交战中的残暴行为
Namely, he talked about the massacre of the male population of Acre.
他记录了穆斯林军队在之后的包围战中
by the muslim army following the siege
对阿卡城内男性的大规模屠杀
and its women and children being sold into slavery.
以及妇人小孩被卖去做奴隶的场景
He described the ultimate decline of the crusader states following the defeat at Acre,
它描述了在阿卡城战败后十字军世界的惨状
amidst the despair and loss of morale by the Franks.
其中不乏法兰克人的绝望和士气的丧失
In general, we can trace a trend of muslim attitudes towards the crusaders
总之 我们可以通过整个十字军东征的过程窥探到
throughout the crusading period.
穆斯林对于这场战争的态度
While at first there was more curiosity towards the crusaders rather than anger,
虽然一开始对于十字军东征大多抱着好奇的态度 而非愤怒
continued occupation and massacre of the muslim population such as in Mahara,
但持续的扩张和对穆斯林教徒的大肆屠杀 比如在马哈拉城
started to change the attitudes towards hostility.
让人们开始产生了敌对情绪
Gradually, the calls for muslims to unite and expel the foreign invaders
逐渐地 开始有越来越多人号召穆斯林团结起来 驱逐外来侵略者
and cease any kind of cooperation started to increase.
阻断一切通商往来
The impact of the crusades in the muslim world is still felt.
十字军东征对穆斯林世界的影响至今仍可感受到
While for the christian west,
尽管对于西方的基督教世界而言
the crusading period is merely an important and curious part of their history,
这一时期不过是他们的历史中充满神秘色彩的重要一笔
which does not really have much to do with their modern lives,
对他们的现代生活不会产生实质性影响
for many muslims,
但对于许多穆斯林来说
it’s seen as just an early episode of western aggression,
这一时期拉开了早期西方入侵的序幕
which is still going on today.
而且至今仍在持续
Some muslim politicians and opinion leaders
一些穆斯林政治家和意见领袖
still refer to the perceived modern western attacks on the Islamic world
仍然将西方对穆斯林世界的攻击
as a continuation of the crusades.
视为十字军东征的延续
Once again thanks to Established Titles for sponsoring this video.
再次感谢Established Title对此次视频的赞助
Established Titles is a perfect last-minute gift for you or your loved ones.
Established Titiles是给你或你所爱最好的礼物
It allows you to buy a small plot of land in Scotland
你可以从这个网站买下一小块苏格兰的土地
and become a lady or a lord as a result.
并最终成为夫人和领主
In return,
作为回报
Established Titles plants a tree to protect the pristine forests of our planet.
Established Titles会在这上面种下树种 以保护我们地球上的原始森林
Support our channel and buy yourself a small plot of land in Scotland.
快来支持我们的频道吧 并为你自己购买一小块苏格兰的土地
They have a huge holiday sale on right now with up to 80% off.
他们现在的节假日促销力度甚至低至两折
Go to ESTABLISHEDTITLES.COM/GENERALS
登录网站ESTABLISHEDTITILES.COM/GENERALS
or click the link in the description
或者点击视频介绍里的链接
and use the code “generals” to get 10% off.
发送口令“generals” 就可获得九折优惠
More videos on medieval history are on the way,
更多有关中世纪历史的视频正在制作中
so make sure you are subscribed
确保你已订阅我们的频道
and have pressed the bell button to see them.
并已点击视频待看
Please consider liking, commenting and sharing.
您可以点赞 评论 分享我们的视频
It helps immensely.
这会给我们带来极大的帮助
Our videos would be impossible without our kind patrons and Youtube channel members
没有我们优秀的赞助商和Youtube的成员我们不可能制作出这么优秀的视频
whose ranks you can join via the links in the description.
您可以通过点击介绍中的了解加入他们
To know our schedule, get early access to our videos
想要获知我们的更新时间 您可提前访问我们的视频
access our discord and much more.
您就可听到不一样的声音等等
This is the Kings and Generals channel
这里是《王侯将相》频道
and we will catch you on the next one.
我们下期见

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译制信息
视频概述

十字军东征在穆斯林眼里曾经是怎样的,对现在的他们又有什么影响

听录译者

人间忽晚

翻译译者

小疯子抱大腿

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8RZtYvW02g

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