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批判性思维基础:必要条件与充分条件 – 译学馆
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批判性思维基础:必要条件与充分条件

CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions [HD]

大家好 我是Kelley Schiffman
Hi, I’m Kelley Schiffman!
耶鲁大学的一名哲学博士生
I’m a PhD student at Yale University.
今天 我想谈谈“必要条件”和“充分条件”
And today I want to talk about necessary and sufficient conditions.
我们经常听到“必要”和“充分”这两个词
We hear the words “necessary” and “sufficient” all the time.
比如 “就这么参加测试 不足以通过”
“Merely taking the test isn’t sufficient for passing it.”
“这名律师通过充分的证据说服陪审团 被告有罪”
“The lawyer convinced the jury that there is sufficient evidence to convict the accused.”
“痛苦是人生中必要的部分”
“Pain is a necessary part of every human life.”
“练习对成功来说很有必要”
“Practice is really necessary for success.”
但这些词更准确的意思是什么呢
But what exactly do these words mean?
如果P是Q的必要条件 那么Q在P正确的情况下才会是正确的
If P is necessary for Q, then Q cannot be true unless P is true.
哲学家们有时将其称之为:如果P对 Q才对
Philosophers sometimes put this by saying that Q is true only if P is true.
我们举个例子来更好的理解这些词
Let’s consider a case to helps us get clear on this.
被大学录取的必要条件是什么?
What’s necessary for getting accepted to a university?
你可能想到的一个必要条件是 人类
Well, you might think that one necessary condition is being human.
你只有是个人才会被大学录取
You can only be accepted to a university if you are human.
另一个必要条件是 提交了申请
Another necessary condition is submitting an application.
除非你提交申请 否则不可能被大学录取
You can’t get accepted to a university unless you apply there.
最后一个必要条件也许是成绩要好
Another necessary condition is perhaps having decent grades.
好了 那充分条件又是什么呢?
Okay, so what about sufficient conditions?
如果P是Q的充分条件
If P is sufficient for Q,
那么P正确的话 可以使Q正确
then P’s being true is enough to make Q true.
哲学家们通常将其称为 如果P对 则Q对
Philosophers often put this by saying that if P is true, then Q is true.
现在回想被大学录取的充分条件
Now it’s a little harder to think of a sufficient condition
可能有点难
for getting accepted to a university.
但是 想想17岁就获得诺贝尔化学奖
But consider some seventeen year old who just won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
这对被大学录取来说绰绰有余
Seems like that is pretty sufficient for getting accepted to university.
现在 必要和充分条件的所有组合都有了
Now, necessary and sufficient conditions come in all combinations.
举一个必要不充分条件的例子
Here is an example of a necessary, but not sufficient, condition.
把车控制好是驾驶技术高超的必要条件
Steering well is a necessary condition for driving well.
除非控制好车子 否则 不可能开得好
You can’t drive well unless you steer your car well.
然而 控制得好并非开得好的充分条件
However, steering well is not sufficient for driving well,
因为控制得好并不能充分的证明你驾驶技术高超
since steering well is not enough to make it true that you are driving well.
你可能控制得好 但由于某些原因 仍驾驶不好
You could steer well but still drive badly for other reasons.
有一个充分不必要条件例子
Here is an example of a sufficient but not necessary condition.
把土豆煮熟是烹调它们的充分条件
Boiling potatoes in water is a sufficient condition for cooking them,
因为熟土豆才能很好的烹调
since it’s true that boiling potatoes is enough to cook them.
然而 熟土豆并不是烹调的必要条件
However, boiling potatoes in water is not a necessary condition for cooking them,
你可以用很多其他的方法烹调土豆:
since you can cook them in many other ways:
煎 炸 烘 烤
frying them, grilling them, baking them, roasting them.
最后 举一个充要条件的例子:
And finally here is an example of a necessary and sufficient condition:
在一场考试中全对
getting all of the answers correct on a test
是得到高分的必要条件
is necessary for getting a perfect score on the test,
因为除非全都答对
because you will not get a perfect score on the test
否则不可能得到高分
unless you get all the answers correct.
且全都答对也是得到高分
Getting all of the answers correct is also a sufficient condition
的充分条件
for getting a perfect score,
因为只要你全对 就肯定得高分
because getting all of the answers correct is enough to get a perfect score.
而得高分可是你必须做的事哦
There is nothing else you must do in order to get a perfect score.
可通过 Amara.org社区来订阅
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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视频概述

介绍了必要条件和充分条件以及充要条件。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5LqNm9d2__I

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