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批判性思维基础:理由和解释

CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Justification and Explanation [HD]

Hi, I’m Kelly Schiffman.
嗨 我是Kelly Schiffman
I’m a PhD student in Yale University.
我是耶鲁大学的一名博士生
Today, I want to talk about justification.
今天我想要聊聊正当理由
A large part of thinking critically
批判性思维很大一部分
involves asking oneself whether one’s beliefs and actions
在于反思自己的信仰和行为
are justified or not
是否合理
But what is it for a belief or action to be justified?
但什么使得自己的信念或行为合理化呢?
What counts as a justification?
什么称得上是合理的理由?
A full answer to this question involves
完整的回答这个问题
a lot of philosophical complexities.
需要涉及许多复杂的哲学问题
But without going into those,
抛开这些复杂问题
we can at least set out a few useful guidelines.
我们至少可列几个实用的指导方法
First of all,
首先
examining whether one’s beliefs or actions are justified
检验信念或行为是否合理
involves stepping back,reflecting on them
需要倒退一步 进行反思
and examining whether they are good,defensible reasons for taking that action
并且检验这些理由是否充分且站得住脚
of holding that belief.
是否足以支撑你的信念
Such reasons are drawn from your experience of the world.
这样的理由来源于你的生活经历
as well as your other beliefs.
以及其他信念
Imagine, for example,
假设 比如
that I’m contemplating going to bed now
我现在很想上床睡觉
rather than staying up for an hour so that
不想再熬一小时的夜
I can talk to my mom on the phone as I promised I would
去给妈妈打一通之前约好的电话
I ask myself whether I have good reason to do this.
我问自己是否有充分的理由这样做
I recognize that I’m really tired,
我觉得自己非常累
and I take that to be a consideration in favor of going to bed now.
并以此作为我现在上床睡觉的一个理由
But I also recognize that going to bed now would
但我同时意识到现在上床睡觉
involve breaking a promise and disappointing my mom,
一不守约定 二会让妈妈失望
both of which considerations give me even greater reason to stay up.
这两种考量让我熬夜的理由更加充分了
I therefore decide that I don’t have sufficient reason
如此一来 我便没有充分的解释或合理的理由
or justification, to go to bed now.
现在上床睡觉
In fact, I have decisive reason to
实际上 再熬一小时的夜
stay up for another hour and keep my promise.
以遵守承诺的理由更具有决定性
A second useful thing to bear in mind
第二点需要牢记的实用技巧是
is that generally when we take someone’s belief or action to be justified,
通常我们认为 某人的信念或行为实属正当时
we do not criticize her for having that belief
我们并不会因为她有这信念
or for doing that action.
或做了这番行为而批判她
Consider, for example, someone who breaks into a house
比方说 假如有人夺门而入
to steal some jewelry just for the fun of it.
偷窃珠宝 却只是因为好玩
Here, we don’t think that the person’s joy justifies their doing this activity,
我们会认为此人的快乐不足以支撑他的行为
so we do criticize them for doing it.
所以我们就会对他们加以批判
Contrast this
对比以下场景
with someone who’s lost in the middle
狂风暴雪之中
of a snow storm and needs to break into someone’s cabin
有人迷路无措 急需闯入一间小屋
to get food and warmth for her and her family.
给自己和家人寻找食物和庇护
Otherwise they’ll die.
否则他们就会死
Here, the action seems justified.
于是夺门而入似乎合乎情理
She’s got good reason to do that.
她这样做的理由很充分
We might think that
我们或许觉得
she owes the cabin owner compensation
她应该赔偿屋主的损失
but we therefore won’t criticize her for doing what she did.
但我们不会因此批判她的这一行为
I’ll leave you with one final thought regarding the
最后我要留个问题供大家思考
difference between justification and explanation.
关于合理的理由和解释之间的差异
Imagine I ask you why you believe in, say, karma.
假设我问你为什么相信 比如 因果报应
You say, “Well, “
你说:“我相信”
“I believe in it because that’s what my parents taught me to believe in.”
“因为父母就是这样教我的”
Now, that’s an explanation for your belief.That explains why you have it.
这只是解释了你有这个信念的原因
But that fact doesn’t justify your belief in Karma.
却并没有让你的这一信念合理化
It doesn’t provide a compelling reason for believing in it.
这一理由也不具有说服力
There are thus two ways
因此共有两种方法
to understand my question
来理解我的问题
“Why do you believe in Karma?”
你为什么相信因果报应?
One way of reading it
解读方式之一就是
is to think that I’m asking for an explanation of your belief.
认为我询问的是一个解释
Another way, though, is to read it as
而另一方式是将它解读为
asking for a justification for the belief.
询问一个合理的理由
It’s this latter sense we have in mind mostly
当我们批判性地反思
when reflecting critically on our beliefs
我们的信念是否合理时
to see if they are justified or not.
我们通常都属于后者
Subtitles by the Amara.org community
字幕由Amara社区提供

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视频概述

一个人心中产生信念和做出行为有理由和解释两种依托,解释是产生某一种信念的原因,而理由是人们做出某种行为的考量因素。人们在日常思维中多半考虑的是理由。

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