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批判性思维:内在价值与工具价值

CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Value [HD]

Hi, I’m Kelly Schiffman.
大家好 我是凯利•谢夫曼
I’m a PhD student at Yale University,
一名耶鲁大学的博士生
and today I want to talk about instrumental and intrinsic value.
今天 我来谈谈工具价值与内在价值
So philosophers like to distinguish between two ways in which something,
哲学家们喜欢从两方面来区分概念
Can have value or worth.
使用价值和本身价值
Something has intrinsic value when we value it simply for its own sake.
为了某物本身而评价它 就具有本身价值
For example, friendship or love,
例如 友情 爱情
wisdom, pleasure, beauty, or health.
才智 快乐 美貌 健康
Take friendship, for example.
以友情为例
Now it’s true that friendship is in part valuable, because of other things it brings about.
友情的部分价值也带来了其他的东西
People with established friendships tend, for example, to live longer and be happier.
有了友谊的羁绊 人们会活更久更开心
But we don’t value friendship merely because it has these good results.
但我们重视友情不只是因为它能带来这些好处
We think friendship is important or valuable in and of itself,
更重要的是友谊本身蕴含的价值
independently of any good results it brings about.
这跟它带来的其它价值没有任何关系
We therefore think that friendship is intrinsically valuable.
所以 我们认为友情属于内在价值
Something, in contrast, has instrumental value
而与此相反的是工具价值
when we value it not for its own sake,
这种我们相对它本身而言
but rather because it helps us to get something else that we do value for its own sake.
而是因为它能帮助我们得到我们真正珍视的东西
In other words, something has instrumental value when it serves as a means
换句话说 当某物作为达到目的的手段时
to some end that we value in and of itself.
它本身就具有工具价值
Money, for example, has mere instrumental value.
比如 金钱仅仅具有工具价值
No one wants money just for the sake of having money,
没人为了钱而要钱
I suppose unless you’re a coin collector.
除非你是个硬币收集爱好者
Rather, people want money because money lets
否则 人们想要钱是因为金钱能够
you buy certain things that you do value for their own sake.
你买某些东西是为了它们本身的价值
For example, you can use money to buy
比如 你可以用钱去买
vitamins or medicine that contribute to your health,
维他命或药物这些对你健康有益的东西
where health is an intrinsic good.
当然 健康是属于内在价值物
Now, it’s important to note that many things have both instrumental and intrinsic value.
其实很多的东西都同时具有工具价值和内在价值
As we’ve noted already, friendship is such a case.
就像我们之前所提到的友情一样
So, too, is health.
同样的 健康也是
Health is good in and of itself,
健康本身就是好的
but it also lets you attain or achieve many other things.
同时 健康的体魄也能让你去追求和获得其它东西
It’s therefore also,an instrumental good.
因此 健康也属于工具价值物
Now, it’s important to distinguish between instrumental and intrinsic value,
现在 更重要的是去区分工具价值和内在价值
because it helps you live better.
通过区分它们 能使我们过得更有意义
Many people spend their lives pursuing,
很多人穷其一生都在追求
for example, money,
比如 追求金钱
thinking that somehow it’s intrinsically valuable,
认为钱本身是有价值的
it’s good in and of itself,
其本身是好的
when really, if they reflected, they’d see that no,
实际上 通过思考 他们会发现其实金钱本身并没有什么价值
it’s just good because it helps you to get other things,
它只是因为能帮你获取其它东西
and then you could reprioritize accordingly.
然后你可以相应地重新确定优先级
So this distinction between instrumental and intrinsic value
因此 工具价值和内在价值之间的区别
is not only philosophically interesting, but practically important.
不仅在哲学上很有趣 在实践中也很重要

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对内在价值与工具价值进行了讲解

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DR42xdsLWkc

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