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批判性思维基础:隐含前提

CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Implicit Premise

[intro music]
[前奏音乐]
Hi, I’m Kelley Schiffman.
嗨 我是Kelley Schiffman
I’m a PHD student at Yale University
我是耶鲁大学的一名博士生
and today I’d like to talk about suppressed premises.
今天我想谈一谈隐含前提
So, very often when we present an argument for a conclusion,
当我们论证一个结论时
we don’t explicitly state
我们通常不会明确说明
all the premises required for getting to the conclusion.
所有推出结论的前提条件
Consider this example.
举个例子
Premise one: Mike is a Canadian.
前提1:麦克是加拿大人
Conclusion: Mike must be polite.
结论:麦克一定很有礼貌
To get from the premise that Mike is a Canadian
从”麦克是加拿大人”这一前提
to the conclusion that Mike is polite,
得出“麦克很有礼貌”这一结论
we need a second premise,
我们需要第二个前提
saying that all Canadians are polite.
即“所有加拿大人都很礼貌”
Only then is this argument strictly valid.
只有这样 论证才严谨合理
Only then does the conclusion follow from the premises.
才能由前提推出结论
Now, premise two here,
现在来看前提2
the premise that all Canadians are polite,
“所有加拿大人都很礼貌”
is an example of what we call a “suppressed premise.”
这就是所谓的“隐含前提”
Consider this other example.
再举个例子
Premise one: Smoking will damage your health.
前提1:吸烟有害健康
Conclusion: So, you shouldn’t do it.
结论:所以你不该吸烟
Here, the suppressed premise is the claim
这里的隐含前提就是
that you shouldn’t do things that damage your health.
“你不该做有害健康的事情”
Now, notice that in both of these cases,
现在注意一下 在这两个例子中
even though these suppressed premises are required
尽管需要隐含前提
for the argument to be valid,
来证明结论为真
it seems nonetheless acceptable
但似乎人们也接受
to leave them only implicit,
把必要前提隐藏起来
to not state them explicitly.
也就是不直接表达出来
But why is this?
但为什么会这样呢?
I would suggest the following
我的理解如下
that it’s okay to keep a premise suppressed
在满足两个条件时
if two conditions are met.
可以隐藏前提
First, that the premise is uncontroversial.
首先 隐含前提必须没有异议
And second, that it’s obvious to the person
其次 看到论述的人
being presented with the argument.
都知道隐含前提
If both of these conditions are met,
这两个条件都满足时
then it seems acceptable to keep the premise suppressed.
隐藏必要前提似乎可行
Sometimes, however, a premise will be left implicit,
然而有时 即便不满足这两个条件
it will be left suppressed, even if it fails
人们也会隐藏必要前提
to meet these conditions.
或不直接陈述前提
Now, sometimes this is done unintentionally.
有时这种隐藏不是刻意为之
Other times it’s done in order to make the argument
而是为了让论述
appear more persuasive than it really is.
比实际更显说服力
Regardless, that’s why it’s important
抛开这些因素 这就是为什么
to be sensitive to the possibility of suppressed premises,
敏锐捕捉潜在的隐含前提尤为重要
and to develop a habit for identifying them.
培养辨别隐含前提的习惯 也同样关键
Consider the following argument.
看下面的论述
Premise one: Killing an innocent person is wrong.
前提1:杀害无辜的人不对
Conclusion: Therefore, abortion is wrong.
结论:所以流产是不对的
The suppressed premise here is something like
这里的隐含前提类似于
“To have an abortion is to kill an innocent person.”
“流产就是杀害了一个无辜的人”
That’s the suppressed premise.
这就是隐含前提
Now, regardless of whether this premise is true or false,
现在 不管这个隐含前提正确与否
it certainly isn’t uncontroversial.
显然它是有争议的
It doesn’t meet condition one.
这就不满足条件1
Nor can one count on others
当然也不能指望别人
taking this premise to be obvious.
认为这一隐含前提显而易见
It doesn’t meet condition two.
所以也不满足条件2
It’s therefore a premise that should be made
因此 在评估论证是否有力时
explicit and critically reflected upon
要看它的前提是否清晰明了
when assessing the strength of the argument.
是否反映了关键所在
It’s in cases like this
在这样的情况中
where sensitivity to suppressed premises is truly important.
敏锐地感知隐含前提 十分关键
Subtitles by the Amara.org community
原文字幕由Amara.org社区提供

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视频概述

正确真实的明显前提下,却会得出错误歪曲的结论。是什么造成了这种情况?

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kSqB7y0NjU

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