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批判性思维谬误:稻草人谬误

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Straw Man Fallacy [HD]

《无线哲学》
Hi. I’m Joseph Wu, and I’m a philosophy graduate student at the University of Cambridge.
嗨 大家好 我是剑桥大学哲学系的研究生Joseph Wu
In this video, I’ll explain the Straw man Fallacy,
在这个视频里 我将解释稻草人谬误
an informal fallacy that comes up all the time.
一种经常出现的非形式谬误
Let’s start off with an example to see how it works.
先举个例子 来看看它是如何产生的
Suppose my friend Maureen presents the following argument:
假设我的朋友Maureen提出了下列观点
Premise 1: Advertisements for beer encourage underage drinking.
前提一:啤酒广告鼓励未成年人喝酒
Premise 2: Underage drinking often has negative consequences.
前提二:未成年人饮酒常导致不良后果
Conclusion: Therefore, advertisements for beer should be banned from TV
结论:因此 电视应该禁播啤酒广告
And, let’s say I respond with the following objection:
假如我将对此观点提出下列反对意见:
“Well, yeah, but people will never give up drinking beer!
“你说得对 但人们是不会停止喝啤酒的!
They’ve been doing it for ages!”
他们都喝习惯了!”
Is this a good response to Maureen’s argument?
针对Maureen的观点 这个回应够好吗?
No! Because Maureen never claims it would be a good idea to give up drinking beer.
不好!因为Maureen从未提到该鼓励戒酒
That’s not her argument at all.
那根本不是她的观点
In this scenario, I’ve committed the Straw Man fallacy
这种情况下 我犯了稻草人谬误
since I’ve attacked a position that Maureen never advances.
因为我攻击了Maureen从未提到的观点
The Straw Man (or Straw Person) fallacy occurs when an opponent’s position is misrepresented
稻草人谬误产生时 对方的观点被歪曲
in order to make it easier to critique.
来使驳斥其观点更容易
Just like how a man made of straw is intended to resemble an actual man,
就像人们制作稻草人 让其形似真人一样
a Straw Man fallacy occurs when an opponent’s position is presented in a way that resembles the original claim,
稻草人谬误产生时 对手的观点看似是其原观点
but is not the actual claim advanced.
但实则不然
It creates the illusion that a position has been refuted or critiqued
通过用相似观点取代原观点的方式
by switching out the original position with a different one.
来制造原观点被驳斥或批评的错觉
To see this more clearly,
为了更清楚地了解此理论
Consider the following two claims:
我们来思考以下两种观点:
Advertisements for beer should be banned from TV.
电视应该禁止打啤酒广告
This is Maureen’s original claim.
这是Maureen的原观点
People should stop drinking beer.
人们应该停止喝啤酒
This is my portrayal of Maureen’s original claim.
这是我对Maureen原观点的描述
And these are two very different claims.
显然 这是两种截然不同的观点
Maureen only endorses the first one based on our conversation.
根据对话 Maureen只支持第一种观点
However, my objection is to the second claim,
然而 我的驳斥针对的是第二种观点
which is much easier to refute.
这种更容易被反驳
This is because the second claim is a very extreme view.
因为第二种观点非常极端
It would take a lot of good arguments to convince others
要说服他人 我们该停止喝啤酒
that people should stop drinking beer.
需要大量可信服的论据
But in our argument, I have improperly attributed this extreme view to Maureen,
但在反驳中 我将这种极端观点强加于Maureen
and then proceeded to attack it.
并进一步攻击它
Since this claim is much easier to refute than her original claim.
这是因为反驳此观点 比反驳原观点容易得多
I have committed the Straw Man fallacy.
我犯了稻草人谬误
The general structure of Straw Man fallacies goes like this.
稻草人谬误的大致结构如下
First, person one advances position X.
首先 一个人提出观点X
Second, person two presents a distorted version of position X.
第二步 另一个人提出观点X的歪曲版
Let’s call this position Y.
可称其为观点Y
Third, person two attacks position Y.
第三步 第二个人攻击观点Y
And, fourth, person two concludes that position X is false.
第四步 第二个人得出结论 观点X是错的
In the Straw Man fallacy we have just considered,
在刚刚谈到的稻草人谬误中
The original view is exaggerated to a very extreme view and then attacked.
原观点被夸大为非常极端的观点 进而被攻击
But there are other ways in which a position can be misrepresented as well.
但还有其它方式 可以歪曲原观点
Sometimes a position can be oversimplified
有时 原观点可能被过度简化
to the point of being absurd.
到荒谬的程度
Here’s an example of that:
举个例子
Suppose my friend Gio presents the following argument:
假设我的朋友Gio提出了以下论证
Premise 1: The theory of evolution says that humans are no different from apes.
前提一:进化论指出 人类和猿没有区别
Premise 2: Humans are different from apes
前提二:人类和猿有区别
because humans are obviously smarter.
因为显然 人类更聪明
Conclusion: Therefore, the theory of evolution is false.
结论:因此 进化论是错的
Is this a good argument?
这是个好论证吗?
Clearly not, since the theory of evolution does not claim
显然不是 因为进化论根本没有提出
that humans are no different from apes.
人类和猿无区别
Gio has falsely characterized what the theory of evolution says
Gio错误地描述了进化论的内容
and then proceeded to attack it.
进而攻击进化论
He has committed the Straw Man fallacy.
他犯了稻草人谬误
But it’s worth noting that the structure of his argument is valid.
但值得注意的是 其论证结构是合理的
So for anyone not familiar with evolutionary theory
所以 对对进化论不熟的人而言
it might seem as that Gio has provided a good argument against evolution.
Gio似乎提出了驳斥进化论的好论证
And this is why Straw Man fallacies can often be difficult to spot.
这就是为什么 稻草人谬误常常难以被发现
The Straw Man fallacy is prevalent in politics as well.
此谬误也普遍存在于政治领域
And it is not just used to misrepresent an opponent’s position.
而且它不只用于错误再现对手观点
Often, straw men are set up to distract people from difficult topics that
通常 当政治家想避免尖刻话题时 他们设立稻草人
politicians want to avoid.
来分散观众的注意力
For example, consider how politicians construct straw men responses
例如 设想政治家通过回答对手从未提出的问题
by answering a question they were never asked.
来构造稻草人
Suppose a politician is being accused of
假设一个政治家被指控
illegally using campaign funds for personal use.
非法动用竞选资金作私人用途
Let’s say a reporter asks the politician directly,
设想 一位记者直接问政治家
“So, did you, or did you not, use campaign funds for personal spending?”
“所以 你是否曾用竞选资金作私人开支?”
And, the politician might respond with something like this:
政治家可能会这样回答
“That’s an excellent question.”
“这个问题问得好”
“I’ve received a lot of generous donations to my campaign.”
“我曾收到大量慷慨的竞选捐助”
“My favorite donation has been a handwritten card
“我最喜欢的捐助
thanking me for everything I’ve done.”
是对我所做所为的一张手写感谢卡”
“I really love that card especially since I value the dedication of working class people.”
“我非常喜欢这张卡 因为我格外重视工人阶级做的贡献”
In this example, the politician sets up a straw man
这个例子中 政治家设立了一个稻草人
by responding to a different question than the one originally asked.
他回答了一个与原问题不同的问题
The question was whether campaign funds have been used for personal spending.
原问题是 竞选资金是否被用作私人开支
But the politician provides an answer to the question,
但政治家回答的是这样一个问题
“What has been your favorite campaign donation?”
“你最喜欢的竞选捐助是什么?”
This is a much easier question to answer,
这是个更易于回答的问题
and, it allows the politician to avoid answering the original question
它使政治家免于回答原问题
while also portraying himself, or herself, positively.
同时 也表现了他(她)自己积极的一面
Straw Man fallacies are everywhere.
稻草人谬误随处可见
And you’ve probably come across variations of the examples
并且 在日常生活中 你可能就遇到过
presented here in your everyday life.
这些例子的变体
Sometimes, Straw Man fallacies are intentional,
有时 人们故意去犯稻草人谬误
which is often the case in politics.
这常发生在政治领域
But other times they are unintentional.
但其它时候 人们是无意的
Like when someone genuinely misunderstands an opponent’s claim.
比如 当某人真的错误理解了对方的观点时
In order to keep discussions productive,
为了使讨论有效
it is important to grasp the exact position being advanced
在攻击已有的观点前
before proceeding to attack it.
准确理解它是非常重要的
Otherwise, you may be guilty of committing the Straw Man fallacy.
否则 你可能会因犯了稻草人谬误而后悔不已

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视频概述

解释稻草人谬误是如何产生。它又是怎样被人们用于政界和日常生活。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-499c3

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfil34ayaEU

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