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肯定结果的形式谬误

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Affirming The Consequent [HD]

(intro music)
[开场音乐]
Hello, I’m Matthew Harris, and I’m a philosophy grad student at Duke University.
大家好 我是马修·哈里斯 杜克大学的哲学研究生
And today, I’ll be discussing[br]the formal fallacy of affirming the consequent,
今天 我将讨论肯定结果的形式谬误
and why you sometimes cannot conclude that you should bathe[br]in a tub of peanut butter.
以及为什么你有时候不能推断出“你应该在一盆花生酱的里洗澡”的结论
Affirming the consequent occurs when someone tries to infer the truth of the antecedent of a[br]conditional statement
肯定后件发生于有人试图从条件陈述及其结果的真实性中
from the truth of the[br]conditional and its consequent.
推断出条件陈述前件的真实性时
But let’s see what this means in more detail.
但是 让我们更详细地看下这意味着什么
There are two kinds of logical fallacies: formal and informal.
有两种逻辑谬误:形式谬误和非形式谬误
Both kinds are defective[br]argumentative patterns.
两种论证模式都有缺陷
First, we have informal fallacies,
首先 非形式谬误
which lack support for the conclusion because of a flaw in its content.
因其内容的缺陷而缺乏对其结论的支持
We also have formal fallacies,
而形式谬误
which all have in common[br]with affirming the consequent
与肯定结果有共同之处
that they have defects in the forms of the argument and that they are invalid.
即它们在论证形式上都有缺陷 而且它们都是无效的
Just to be clear, let’s go[br]over a few more definitions.
为了清楚起见 让我们再看几个定义
We make conditional[br]statements all the time.
我们总是做有条件的陈述
They’re generally easy to spot because they usually are of the form “if P, then Q.”
它们通常很容易被发现 因为它们通常是“如果P 那么Q”的形式
Here, “P” is the antecedent.
在这里 “P”是先行词
An easy way to spot antecedents is to remember that they typically come after the word “if,”
识别先行词的简单方法是记住它们通常在“if”之后
[br]whether or not they’re at the beginning, middle[br]or end of sentences.
不管它们是否在句子的开头 中间或者结尾
If you need help remembering that,
如果你需要帮助来记忆
just remember that the antecedent comes before the other logically,
只用记住这一点 先行词在逻辑上先于另一个词
and that it sounds a lot like “ancestor.”
而且这个词听起来很像“祖先”
The consequent of the conditional is the part that typically follows after the word “then.”
条件句的结果通常是跟在单词“那么”后面的部分
It should be easy to remember
这很容易记住
because it sounds like “consequence” and basically is just that.
因为它听起来像单词“结果” 而且事实也是如此
So let’s take the following[br]conditionals for examples.
所以 让我们以下面的条件句为例
Suppose someone tells you the following true conditionals and statement:
假设有人告诉你以下真实的条件和陈述
“If the neighbors ate Susan’s parrot, then Susan is angry.”
“如果邻居吃了苏珊的鹦鹉 那么苏珊很生气”
and “Susan is angry.”
和“苏珊很生气”
Just because it is true[br]that if the neighbors had eaten the parrot,
仅仅因为“如果邻居吃了鹦鹉
then[br]she would have been angry,
那么她会很生气”是真的
and it is also true that she is angry,
和“她很生气”也是真的
does not mean that she’s angry because they ate her parrot.
并不意味着她很生气 是因为邻居吃了她的鹦鹉
Perhaps she’s mad because her parrot isn’t very interesting.
也许她生气是因为她的鹦鹉不是很好玩
Or maybe she’s angry that it doesn’t know how to use the toy car that she spent all afternoon building for it.
或者也许她生气 是因为她不知道怎么使用她花了整个下午做好的玩具车
Nevertheless, it does not[br]follow from the conjunction of the true conditional[br]and the true consequent
然而 这并不是从真条件和真结果的结合
that the antecedent is true.
推断出先行词是真的
Let’s look at a few more examples:
让我们再看几个例子:
“If Tom has a good reason to complain,
“如果汤姆有充分的理由抱怨
“then Tom will complain tomorrow.”
那么汤姆明天会抱怨”
Now, maybe you know Tom well,
现在 或许你很了解汤姆
so you know that this is true.
所以你知道这是真的
Maybe you even know that it’s true that he will complain tomorrow.
也许你甚至知道他明天会抱怨这件事是真的
But it would not follow that Tom has a good reason to complain.
但是这并不能充分说明汤姆有充分的理由抱怨
Maybe he just doesn’t know any better way to get attention.
也许他只是不知道有什么更好的方法引起别人的注意
Now, let’s take a look[br]at one more example.
现在 让我们再看一个例子
Consider this conditional[br]and the assertion:
思考一下这个条件和断言
“If you are allergic to peanut butter,
“如果你对花生酱过敏
then it would be a bad idea to bathe in a tub of peanut butter,”
那么在一盆花生酱中洗澡是个坏主意”
and “it is a bad idea to bathe in a tub of peanut butter;
和“在一盆花生酱中洗澡是个坏主意
therefore, you are[br]allergic to peanut butter.”
因此你对花生酱过敏”
Just because it is true that it would be a bad idea to bathe in[br]a tub of peanut butter if you are allergic,
仅仅因为“如果你对花生酱过敏 那么在一盆花生酱里洗澡就是个坏主意”
and it is also true that it is a bad idea to bathe in a tub of[br]peanut butter in general
和“一般来说 在一盆花生酱中洗澡是个坏主意”
does not mean that you are[br]allergic to peanut butter.
并不意味着你对花生酱过敏
If you were to conclude this,
如果你得出了这个结论
then you would be committing the fallacy of affirming the consequent.
那么你就犯了肯定结果的谬论
So that’s the formal fallacy of affirming the consequent,
所以 这就是肯定结果的形式谬论
and a few examples that you[br]could use in the future.
还有一些你可以在以后用的例子
Subtitles by the Amara.org community
本字幕由Amara.org社区提供

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视频概述

讨论了肯定结果的两种逻辑谬误:形式谬误和非形式谬误,举例贴近生活且易于理解。

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翻译译者

Daisy

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ArXbUhbikQ

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