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认知偏见:特种部队谬误 – 译学馆
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认知偏见:特种部队谬误

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: The GI Joe Fallacy [HD]

Hi! My name is Laurie Santos.
嗨!我是Laurie Santos
I teach psychology at Yale University,
我在耶鲁大学教心理学
and today I want to talk to you about the GI Joe fallacy.
今天我想和你讲的是“特种部队”谬误
This lecture is in the series on cognitive biases.
这堂课是认知偏见的其中一集
If you’ve watched a bunch of these videos,
如果你看过这个系列的其它课程
you’ve probably gotten a bit better at noticing your biases at work
你大概能更好地注意到工作中的一些认知偏见
and knowing that you might fall prey to them.
并意识到你或许会因为它们而犯错
You might also think that knowing about your biases would
你或许认为知道自己的认知偏见
naturally, make you less susceptible to them.
就可以让自己自然而然地更少犯这些错误
Unfortunately, it’s not always that simple.
不幸的是 事情并没有这么简单
In fact,
实际上
if you think knowing your biases is all you need to overcome them,
如果你认为只要知道自己的认知偏见就能克服它们
then you’d be falling prey yet another bias:
那么你就会陷入另一个谬误:
the GI Joe fallacy.
特种部队谬误
If you’re a child of the nineteen-eighties,
如果你出生于上世纪八十年代
then you might have a guess about where the name from this bias comes from.
那么你或许能够猜出这个偏见的名字出自哪里
Yes, it’s from that cartoon known as”GI Joe.”
没错 它正是来自动画《特种部队》
Maybe you remember how these shows ended.
或许你还记得这个动画是这么结尾的
Each episode had a sort of cheesy public service announcement that
每集片尾都有一则别扭的官方宣言
ended with the show’s famous epithet:
即本片的名言:
“Now you know, and knowing is half the battle.”
“现在你知道了 而知道是成功的一半”
The problem with this idea,
这句名言的问题在于
the idea that knowing is half the battle,
“知道是成功的一半” 这种思想
The cognitive science has shown us
认知科学告诉我们
that merely knowing about our biases is
仅仅知道我们的认知偏见
often way less than half the battle.
通常离成功还很远
Now there are certainly some cases where knowing is half the battle:
尽管有些情况下知道就是成功的一半:
Knowing your multiplication tables, for example,
比如认识了乘法表
or knowing which aisle the milk is in.
或者知道牛奶放在了哪个过道
But there are many more where it’s not the case,
但是大多数情况下并非如此
cases where just knowing something
更多时候是仅仅知道某件事
doesn’t really help us all that much.
并不能产生那么大的作用
For example, you may know that standing on the Grand Canyon Skywalk
比如 或许你知道
is perfectly safe,
站在美国大峡谷空中走廊是非常安全的
but your mind will still feel like it’s pretty scary.
但是你的大脑还是会觉得那很吓人
You may know that arbitrary anchors can mess up your final judgment,
你或许知道任意锚会搞砸你的最终决定
but you still feel like it’s best to get five chocolates
就像当你看到了“五个巧克力只需要5美元”的标志时
when you see a “five for five dollars” sign.
你仍会觉得买5个巧克力是最好的选择
Finally, you may know that different wordings can affect your intuitions.
你也许知道不同的措辞会影响你的直觉
But you still may be more hesitant to take a risk involving lives lost than lives saved.
但在面临损失生命的风险时你仍然会更加犹豫
Years and years of research on cognitive bias has shown
对认知偏见的多年研究表明
that knowing or recognizing yourself as having information
知道或者认识到自己得到了某些信息
is only a small part of what controls our behavior.
只是控制我们行为的一小部分
In day to day situations,
在日常情况下
most of our behavioral control comes from other progress,
我们大多数的行为受到其它过程的控制
like our habits.
比如习惯
with the situations we find ourselves in
或者是我们自己所处的环境
and not from our conscience selves.
而并不是来源于我们的意识本身
This is why shaping our situations
这也就是为何塑造周围的环境
to nudge our behavior in the right direction.
能把我们的行为推向好的方向
Or even just learning to regulate your emotions
即使只是学着管理自己的情绪
over time can be really powerful.
从长远来看也会有很大的帮助
The funniest part of the GI Joe fallacy
“特种部队谬误”最有意思的地方在于
is that even knowing about it
即使我们已经知道这个谬误
and the fallacy would protect is less than half the battle.
我们仍然离成功还很远
Even if you know knowing is half the battle,
即使你知道“知道了也还离成功很远”
you still have a tendency to think that way
你还是趋向于去认为
you consciously know is a main thing that controls your behavior.
自己意识到的才是主导自己行为的因素
But it’s not.
但并不是
Even if you watch all of these videos
即使你看了本系列所有的视频
you’re still going to be subject to the same effects that the videos described.
主观上你仍然会受到我们视频中所描述谬误的影响
For most cognitive biases including the GI Joe fallacy
对于大多数认知偏见 包括特种部队谬误
knowing is not even half of the battle.
知道并不是成功的一半
So now you know
现在你知道这个事实了
and that’s less than half the battle.
然而离成功还是很遥远

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视频概述

“知道是成功的一半”?不,知道仅仅是个开始

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收集自网络

翻译译者

杜若

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sO9xwAyeWX0

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