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批判性思维-认知偏见:价格效应 – 译学馆
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批判性思维-认知偏见:价格效应

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: Pricing Biases [HD]

(引入音乐)
(intro music)
我是Laurie Santos
My name is Laurie Santos.
我在耶鲁大学教授心理学
I teach psychology at YaleUniversity,
现在 我想和你讨论一下价格效应
and today, I want to talk to youabout pricing biases.
这节课是认知偏见系列课中的一部分
This lecture is part of aseries on cognitive biases.
恭喜你!
Congratulations!
你刚刚在抽彩中中奖了
You’ve just won a raffle,
奖品是一瓶葡萄酒
and your prize is a bottle of wine.
你有以下两种选择
Here are your choices.
选项一是一瓶不错的产自加利福尼亚的黑皮诺葡萄酒
Option number one is a lovelybottle of California Pinot Noir
价值20美元
that costs twenty dollars.
选项二是另一瓶黑皮诺葡萄酒
Option number two is anotherbottle of Pinot Noir,
产自同样的地区 但价值50美元
from the same region, thatcosts fifty dollars.
你会选哪一个?
Which would you choose?
你可能会和大多数人一样选择更贵的那瓶葡萄酒
If you’re like most people, you probably went with the more expensive wine.
不论人们的选项涉及到葡萄酒 肉 甚至是卡带录音机
People tend to pick the most expensive option,
人们总是倾向于选择价格最高的那个
whether their choices involve wine, or meats, or even cassette players.
但是更奇怪的是
What’s a bit weirder, though,
即使知道价钱其实是完全任意制定的
is the fact that we still like higher-priced good
我们还是喜欢价格高昂的商品
even when we know that the price it totally arbitrary.
一个由神经学家Hilke Plassman和她的同事做的实验
One experiment that showed this bias at work
展现出这种偏见
was done by the neuroscientist Hilke Plassman and her colleagues.
他们让一些人品尝分别从两个瓶子中倒出的葡萄酒
They allowed people to taste a glass of wine from two bottles
一瓶标价10美元 另一瓶标价90美元
that were labeled as eitherten dollars or ninety dollars.
但是他们没有告诉参与者的是
What they didn’t tellparticipants, however,
那两瓶酒其实是一样的
was that the two bottles were identical.
瓶中装着完全相同的葡萄酒
They contained exactlythe same wine inside.
虽然两瓶酒的味道本应完全一样
Even though the wines should have tasted identically,
但是参与者们说喜欢标价更高的那瓶
people reported liking the wine with the more expensive price tag even better.
看起来只要把一样东西标更高的价格便会让我们更喜欢它
It seems that merely labeling one thing as more expensive makes us like it more.
我们似乎把一件商品的价格和其价值混淆了
We seem to be confusing agood’s price with its value.
这样一种混淆被称为“价格效应”
This confusion is what’sknown as a”price effect.”
只要告诉某人一样东西价格更高就会让他更喜欢这样东西
Simply telling someone thatsomething costs more make them like it more.
这种效应对许多不同种商品都起作用
And the effect seems to hold for lots of different kinds of goods.
你可能倾向于认为
You might be tempted to think that
人们没有像在Plassman和她同事们的研究中所显示的那么愚蠢
people aren’t as fooled as it seems in Plassman and colleagues’ studies.
可能人们只是口头上说他们更喜欢价格高的东西
Maybe people just say theylike expensive stuff better,
其实主观上并不认为贵的东西更好
even though they don’t reallysubjectively feel like it’s better.
Plassman和她的同事也担心这个问题
Plassman and her colleagues worried about that too,
所以他们用一个巧妙的的技术
which is why they used a pretty ingenious technique
来测试人们是否真的在偏爱其中一瓶酒
to test whether subjects actually liked one wine better than the other.
除了询问受试者之外 他们还采用脑成像技术
Rather than just asking subjects, they used brain imaging techniques
来测试人脑是如何应对不同标价但完全相同的酒
to test how people’s brains processed the same wine with different price tags.
他们发现大脑处理奖赏的那部分区域
They found that the parts of a subject’s brain that process rewards,
也就是当我们赚钱
the same spots that would fire a lot if you won some money,
或者见到有吸引力的对象 甚至是尝到好吃的甜点时激发的那部分区域
or saw an attractive mate, or even tasted an amazing dessert,
会被标价更高的葡萄酒
fired more for the very same wine
更多地激发
when it was labeled with a higher price tag.
所以价格效应给我们的影响
So our pricing biasesappear to affect more than
不仅限于我们在调查中表现的主观评价
just the subjective evaluationswe report on a survey.
甚至从大脑奖赏区域的表现来看
We seem to like higher-priced things more,
高价的东西似乎也更受青睐
even at the level of thereward areas in our brains.
但是随意给定的更高价不只是影响我们的偏好
But arbitrarily higher prices don’t just affect what we like.
也影响着给定的商品所产生的效果
They can also affect howwell a given product works.
行为经济学家Baba Shiv和他的同事
The behavioral economistBaba Shiv and his colleagues
让一些人为一种能量饮料付不同数额的钱
let people pay differentamounts for an energy drink,
然后测试这些饮料的效果
and then tested how those drinks worked.
它们给人们增加还是减少了能量?
Did they make peoplemore or less energized?
Shiv和他的同事发现人们在喝了完全相同的能量饮料中
Shiv and his colleagues found that people reported feeling more energized
标价更高的那瓶之后觉得更加精力充沛
after drinking the very same energy drink with a higher price tag.
并且他们也在一系列脑力敏锐度的测试上表现得更好
But they also did better on a set of mental acuity puzzles.
不知为什么 参与者真的在喝了标价更高的饮料之后
Somehow, participants really weremore energized after a drink with a high price tag.
比喝了相同但价格更低的饮料更加精力充沛
than when drinking an identical drink with a lower price tag.
这结果表明我们
These results suggest that the price we pay,
为阿斯匹林 一瓶葡萄酒甚至是能量饮料所付的价钱
for an aspirin, or a bottle of wine, or even an energy drink,
不止影响了我们钱包中所剩的钱
doesn’t just affect what’s in our wallets.
因为价格效应
Because of price biases skills,
即使商品的价格完全是随意制定的
our minds assume that higher prices mean better quality,
我们意识中也会认为更高的价格意味着更高的质量
even in cases where the price of a good is totally arbitrary.

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视频概述

价格越高的商品质量越好其实是人们的一个认知偏见,本视频将会给大家介绍这样一种价格效应。

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翻译译者

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审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=roRIPM3i0ZM

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