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认知偏见:峰终效应 – 译学馆
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认知偏见:峰终效应

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: Peak-End Effect [HD]

Wiphl
《无线哲学》
My name is Laurie Santos.
我是Laurie Santos
I teach psychology at Yale University,
在耶鲁大学教心理学
and today,I want to talk to you about peak-end effects.
今天我想和大家谈谈峰终效应
This lecture is part of a series on cognitive biases.
这堂课是认知偏差系列课程的一部分
I want you to think back to the last time
回想一下上次
you went to a restaurant and had an expensive meal.
你去餐馆吃的那顿昂贵的饭
Now remember all the different parts of that event.
回忆一下那顿饭中让你印象深刻的部分
Done?
回忆完了吗
Will,then I want you to answer a very simple question: how was it?
好 我想问你一个很简单的问题:那顿饭怎么样?
No matter whether you said it was just so so, or the best meal ever,
不管你认为它一般般 还是最好的一顿饭
I bet you experienced the act of answering
我敢打赌 对你们来说
this question as relatively simple.
这个问题比较容易回答
Deciding whether some event was good or bad is something we find pretty easy.
判断某事的好坏是很一件很容易的事情
We can quickly say
我们能快速说出
weather we liked a particular movie,
我们是否喜欢某部电影
or how much fun we had on vacation,
我们在假期玩得多么开心
or even how our last job interview went.
甚至是我们上一次面试怎么样
But making this kind of judgment should involve some
但是做出这种判断应该包括一些
pretty complicated computations.
相当复杂的计算
To judge how your last restaurant meal was,
为了判断你上次在餐馆吃的饭如何
you might have to computationally combined how you
你要列出一个整合的公式
rated a whole bunch of different
来对这顿饭体验中的不同细节进行评分
points in the experience,
并进行排列组合
and you have to judge how each of them fits together,
你还要对不同评分进行综合配比
and come up with an overall rating.
然后得出总评
You also have to decide how many time points you’re
你还要考虑不同时间点
going to sample to figure out your rating.
对评分的影响
When you thought about the restaurant,
当你想到这个餐馆时
did your mind give you a rating to the experience
你的大脑是否
across every single minute, or every second, or even every millisecond?
每分每秒 甚至每毫秒 都反馈给你一个体验评分?
It turns out that our minds figure out
事实证明我们的大脑
this complicated problem by using a surprisingly streamline strategy.
用一种精简的方法来解决这个复杂问题
In fact, when we remember an event,
其实 我们回忆一件事时
we tend to ignore lots and lots of the parts of that event.
我们容易忽略这件事的很多部分
In fact, we seem to make an evaluation based
事实上 我们对这件事的评价
on only two parts of our experience:
似乎只基于过程的两个部分:
the peak
高峰部分
(that is the part of the experience that’s most extreme, either good or bad)
即体验中最好的或最坏的部分
and the end (that is, how it ended).
和终结部分 即结尾时的体验
All of our memories, both good ones and bad ones,
因为我们对于记忆中事物好坏的评价
are often remembered as such because of the action of these two points.
常常基于这两个节点的体验
To study this effect, the psychologist Danny Kahneman and his colleagues
为研究这种效应 心理学家丹尼尔•卡纳曼和他的同事们
presented participants with a painful event.
进行了一项有关痛苦体验的实验
They had to stick their hand in really, really cold, fourteen
参与者们必须把手伸入
degree water for sixty seconds.
14摄氏度的冰水中 并坚持60秒
After that, the subjects were given a second event.
之后 还有第二次实验
It started out exactly the same as the first.
一开始它和第一次的实验完全一样
Their hands were placed in really, really cold,
参与者们把双手伸入
fourteen degree water for sixty seconds.
14摄氏度的冰水中 并坚持60秒
But then the second painful event continued.
不过这一次参与者还要继续忍受刺骨的冰水
Participants kept their hand in the water for thirty more seconds,
他们要把双手放在水中 再保持30秒
as the temperature was increased
同时温度升高到15摄氏度
to a still painful, but not as painful, fifteen degrees.
仍然刺骨 但明显会好受些
Kahneman and colleagues then asked participants which event
之后卡纳曼和他的同事们问参与者们
they liked better, or which they would prefer to experience again.
更喜欢或者说更情愿再次体验哪一次实验
Surprisingly,participants overwhelmingly preferred the second event.
令人惊讶的是 参与者们全部选择第二次实验
Even though they were in pain for longer,
尽管他们痛苦的时间更长
the second event ended a bit better.
但第二次实验结尾时的痛苦要比第一次略轻
And when you average the peak
如果分别求出每一次实验的
and end point of each event,
高峰与终结时的效果平均值
the second one is better, even though it involves overall more pain.
尽管第二个实验痛苦持续的时间更长但它的痛苦体验感更低一些
Kahneman and colleagues wondered
卡纳曼和他的同事们想知道
whether the same peak-end effect would work for
峰终效应是否同样适用于
people’s memories in situations that we experience in the real world.
人们对于各种现实体验的记忆
They teamed up with doctors who were giving patients a painful medical procedure.
他们与使用疼痛疗法的医生合作
Usually, the procedure went like this.
通常 疼痛疗法是这么进行的
It started out as not so painful,
一开始患者并不会感到十分痛苦
and gradually got more and more painful,
渐渐地 越来越痛苦
ending in a moment of maximum pain.
最后一刻达到疼痛的峰值
Kahneman and his colleagues thought
卡纳曼和他的同事们认为
that this procedure would be remembered as particularly awful,
这个治疗过程的可怕让人难以忘却
not because it was a painful procedure, but
不是因为它是一个痛苦的过程
because the peak and end point of this procedure were particularly bad.
而是因为这个过程的高峰与终结部分 都非常糟糕
To test this assumption, Kahneman and his colleagues ran a clinical trial.
为了检验这个猜想 卡纳曼及其同事们做了个临床实验
They extended the length of the painful procedure so it worked like this.
他们延长了这个痛苦过程的时长 具体是这么进行的
Patients had to be in pain for overall longer,
患者的疼痛时间更长
but the procedure ended on a slightly less painful note.
但在结束时 疼痛感有所减轻
Kahneman and colleagues found that people
卡纳曼和他的同事们发现
reported liking the second procedure much better.
患者更喜欢第二种治疗过程
They reported not feeling as much pain,
他们说没有感觉到非常疼痛
and were even willing to come back for more repeated procedures.
甚至愿意重复多次这样的过程
Kahneman and colleagues’ clinical trial highlights
卡纳曼及其同事们的临床实验 揭示了
one of the most surprising things about our peak-end theoretics,
理论中一个最令人吃惊的特点
namely, the information that it doesn’t take into account,
就是我们不会把事件体验的时长
and that’s how long the event happens to be.
纳入考虑范围
Patient would rather be in pain for twice as long,
患者宁可承受两倍时间的痛苦
so long as the average of the peak and end is more pleasant.
只要峰终部分痛感的平均值 更易于患者接受
Since our minds only take
既然我们的大脑
into account the peak and the end when remembering an event,
只考虑记忆中的高峰与终结部分
there’s no way to tell how long a particular event was.
那么便没法断定某件事持续了多长时间
We just kind of ignore that part of the event in our evaluations.
我们只是忽视整个评估中的某些部分
This phenomena is known as”duration neglect.”
这种现象被称为“过程忽视”
Our duration neglect means
过程忽视意味着
that wonderful experiences can stay just as wonderful
美好时光虽然短暂
even when you keep them really short.
却在心中永恒不衰
It also means that you can make somewhat
它也意味着你可以忍受
annoying experiences longer, and you
不愉快体验的时长变长
won’t even remember them that way.
因为你只会记得它有多么讨厌 而不会在乎它持续了多久
The peak-end effect also gives us some
关于如何拥有一个非常美好的体验
hints about how to make an event especially awesome.
峰终效应给了我们一些启示
Since each event’s goodness involves only its peak and its end point,
既然我们对于每件事的体验集中于其高峰和终结部分
we can make events particularly fun
我们可以通过让事件有一个好的收尾的方式
by making them end their best point possible.
让体验更有趣
In fact, lots of the events that we enjoy most
其实我们享受的许多事都有一个特点
involve ends that are also peaks.
它们的终结部分往往也是高峰部分
From the final winning goal to firework finales,
无论是赛场上的决胜球还是烟火终场秀
saving the best for last
把最好的留到最后
seems to make it an event better.
似乎能让我们获得更好的体验感
So next time you’re having a really nice meal,
所以下一次你在享用佳肴时
be sure to save some room for dessert
别忘了给饭后甜点留点肚子

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视频概述

我们的大脑在评价过去经历时,会受到峰终效应的影响。它启示我们如何让一件事给你留下美好的印象。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhyJGwNpEcw

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