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认知偏见:心理账户 – 译学馆
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认知偏见:心理账户

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: Mental Accounting [HD]

[Music playing]
[音乐]
My name is Laurie Santos.
我叫萝莉.桑托斯
I teach psychology at Yale University,
我在耶鲁大学教授心理学课程
and today I want to talk to you about mental accounting.
今天 我想跟大家讲的是关于心理账户的课程
This lecture is part of a series on cognitive biases.
这堂课属于认知偏差系列的一部分
Imagine that you decide to go
设想一下你决定去小镇上
see a new movie opening up in your town
看一场正在上映的新电影
You head to the counter and hand the cashier a twenty dollar bill.
你交给前台一张二十美金的现金支票
She gives you back a ten dollar bill and a ten dollar ticket.
她找给你十美金和一张价值十美金的电影票
But when you get to the theater door,
但是当你到了影院门口的时候
you realize you don’t know where your ticket is.
你发现找不到电影票了
It’s not in your purse or your pocket.
它既不在你钱包也不在你口袋里
It’s just lost.
票丢了
What would you do?
你会怎么做呢?
Do you think you’d pay ten dollars for a new ticket,
你觉得你会重新付十美金买一张新票
or would you just head home?
还是直接回家呢?
If you’re like most people, you might be tempted to head home.
大多数人会倾向于回家
In fact, when the psychologists Kahneman and Tversky
实际上 当心理学家卡奈曼和特沃斯基
presented this problem to college students, fifty-four percent of people said
向大学生们提出这个问题的时候 百分之五十四的人说到
they’d probably just head back home.
他们可能会直接回家
But now imagine a different scenario.
然而想象一下另外一个场景
This time, you decide to see the movie,
这次 你决定去看这场电影
and you head to the counter and hand the cashier twenty dollars.
同样你走到付款台 付了二十美金的现金
This time, she gives you back two ten dollar bills,
这次 她找给你两张十美金的现金
so that you can easily pay ten dollars at the door to get in.
这样你能轻松地在影院门口支付十美金进去
But when you get to the door,
但是当你到达影院门口时
you realize that you can only find one of the ten dollar bills.
你意识到你只能找到一张十美金的现金了
The other one’s not in your purse or your pocket.
另外一张不在你包里也不在口袋里
It’s just lost.
钱丢了
What would you do?
你会怎么做呢?
Would you pay ten dollars for the movie or just head home?
你是付十美金去看电影还是直接回家呢?
if you’re like most people, you’d probably still go see the movie.
如果你属于大多数人 可能继续选择看电影
In fact, when Kahneman and Tversky
事实上 当卡奈曼和特沃斯基
presented this problem to college students,
向学生们提出这个问题时
eighty-eight percent of people said they’d probably go to the movie anyway.
百分之八十八的人依然会选择看电影
The different responses to these cases
这些对于不同处境不同的反应
illustrate a bias known as”mental accounting.”
说明了一个众所周知的偏差 就是“心理账户”
We use different accounts in our heads for different activities,
我们的大脑对于不同的行为会有不同的账户
and the resources from one account aren’t automatically
资源不是自动的从一个账户
transferred for use in another.
转化到另外一个账户并为其所用
This is why we pretty rarely take fifty dollars from our
这就是为什么我们很少有人
401k account to have a nice meal,
从40万1千美金的账户里取出50美金去吃顿大餐了
or why we sometimes blow our tax return on stuff
或者为什么有时会把我们报税的钱花在那些
we’d never blow our savings on.
我们应该永远不会用积蓄买的东西上
In our head, we automatically set up different
我们的大脑自动为
accounts for different stuff,
不同的东西设定了不同的账户
and if we end up with extra money we didn’t expect,
如果我们为没有计划购买的东西买单了
say from a windfall in a tax return,
比如从报税单发了笔横财
or even from an unexpected coupon,
甚至意想不到的优惠券
we end up blowing that money in this new extra account.
这些新的额外账户里的钱最终还是会被花光
It’s why gamblers gamble a lot more when they’re playing with house money.
这就是为什么赌徒在用身家玩的时候下的赌注更大
We use different mental accounts all the time,
我们一直持有不同的心理账户
from the money we plan to spend on something fun
从我们为娱乐活动买的单
like movies and plays,
比如看电影或者玩乐
to the accounts we keep for our kids’ college tuition.
到为孩子们大学学费设立的储蓄账户
Our minds just naturally keep things separate.
大脑总是自然地将每件事独立分开
The problem is that our intuition to keep things separate
问题在于 我们将事物分开的直觉
violates a classic economic principle: the idea that money should be fungible.
违反了一个经典的经济学原则:货币是可替代的
Classical economist are often puzzled by the fact
古典经济学家常常困惑于这样一个事实
that we can’t just think of money as well, money.
就是我们不能只把钱当做钱
Why shouldn’t a ten dollar ticket
为什么一张十美金的电影票
and a ten dollar bill be the same thing?
和十美金的现金不等值呢?
To an economist, it should be.
对于经济学家来说 两者是等价值的
But for our minds, not so much.
但是对于我们而言 却不尽相同
The good news is
好消息是
that we can use these funny mental accounts to our advantage.
我们可以把这些有趣的心理账户为我们所用
A friend of the behavioral economist Dick Thaler did just this.
行为经济学家迪克•泰勒的一个朋友就做到了这一点
He set up a new account with money that
他开了一个新的储蓄账户
he planned to donate to charity at the end of every year.
用他每年年底计划捐给慈善机构的钱
Each time something bad happened,
每当有不好的事情发生
a parking ticket or lost ten dollars for a movie,
收到停车罚单或丢失一张价值10美金的电影票
he took the money out of that account instead.
他都会从这个账户取出相应的金额来
His mental accounting caused him to think
他的心理账户引导他认为
that the money wasn’t really his anyway,
这笔钱不属于他
and it made him feel less bad whenever he experienced losses.
这样当他经历损失的时候 他会觉得损失的少一点
Our biases toward mental accounting
我们的心理账户偏差
mean that our minds don’t work in the way
意味着我们的大脑
that classical economists like to think.
不以经济学家的方式思考
But we can use these mental accounting biases to our advantage.
但是我们可以把这些心理账户偏差为我们所用
We have control over which accounts we set up and which we deduct from
我们可以对自己设置的账户和减掉的账户进行控制
Just be sure to remember
下次你碰巧弄丢了电影票
that the next time you happen to lose your movie ticket.
一定要记住这点
Subtitles by the Amara.org community
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视频概述

本文详细介绍了我们大部分人存在的认知偏见以及如何正确使用"心理账户"这一概念,修正认知偏见。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TuQ7YI-soQ

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