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认知偏见:心理账户 – 译学馆
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认知偏见:心理账户

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: Mental Accounting [HD]

[音乐]
[Music playing]
我叫萝莉.桑托斯
My name is Laurie Santos.
我在耶鲁大学教授心理学课程
I teach psychology at YaleUniversity,
今天 我想跟大家讲的是关于心理账户的课程
and today I want to talk to you aboutmental accounting.
这堂课属于认知偏差系列的一部分
This lecture is part of aseries on cognitive biases.
设想一下你决定去小镇上
Imagine that you decide to go
看一场正在上映的新电影
see a new movie opening up in your town
你交给前台一张二十美金的现金支票
You head to the counter and hand the cashier a twenty dollar bill.
她找给你十美金和一张价值十美金的电影票
She gives you back a ten dollar bill and a ten dollar ticket.
但是当你到了影院门口的时候
But when you get to the theater door,
你发现找不到电影票了
you realize you don’t know where your ticket is.
它既不在你钱包也不在你口袋里
It’s not in your purse or your pocket.
票丢了
It’s just lost.
你会怎么做呢?
What would you do?
你觉得你会重新付十美金买一张新票
Do you think you’d pay tendollars for a new ticket,
还是直接回家呢?
or would you just head home?
大多数人会倾向于回家
If you’re like most people, you might be tempted to head home.
实际上 当心理学家卡奈曼和特沃斯基
In fact, when the psychologistsKahneman and Tversky
向大学生们提出这个问题的时候 百分之五十四的人说到
presented this problem to collegestudents, fifty-four percent of people said
他们可能会直接回家
they’d probably just head back home.
然而想象一下另外一个场景
But now imagine a different scenario.
这次 你决定去看这场电影
This time, you decide to see the movie,
同样你走到付款台 付了二十美金的现金
and you head to the counter and hand the cashier twenty dollars.
这次 她找给你两张十美金的现金
This time, she gives youback two ten dollar bills,
这样你能轻松地在影院门口支付十美金进去
so that you can easily pay ten dollars at the door to get in.
但是当你到达影院门口时
But when you get to the door,
你意识到你只能找到一张十美金的现金了
you realize that you can only find one of the ten dollar bills.
另外一张不在你包里也不在口袋里
The other one’s not in yourpurse or your pocket.
钱丢了
It’s just lost.
你会怎么做呢?
What would you do?
你是付十美金去看电影还是直接回家呢?
Would you pay ten dollars for the movie or just head home?
如果你属于大多数人 可能继续选择看电影
if you’re like most people, you’d probably still go see the movie.
事实上 当卡奈曼和特沃斯基
In fact, when Kahneman andTversky
向学生们提出这个问题时
presented this problem to college students,
百分之八十八的人依然会选择看电影
eighty-eight percent of people said they’d probably go to the movie anyway.
这些对于不同处境不同的反应
The different responses to these cases
说明了一个众所周知的偏差 就是“心理账户”
illustrate a bias knownas”mental accounting.”
我们的大脑对于不同的行为会有不同的账户
We use different accounts in our heads for different activities,
资源不是自动的从一个账户
and the resources from one account aren’t automatically
转化到另外一个账户并为其所用
transferred for use in another.
这就是为什么我们很少有人
This is why we pretty rarelytake fifty dollars from our
从40万1千美金的账户里取出50美金去吃顿大餐了
401k account to have a nice meal,
或者为什么有时会把我们报税的钱花在那些
or why we sometimes blow our tax return on stuff
我们应该永远不会用积蓄买的东西上
we’d never blow our savings on.
我们的大脑自动为
In our head, we automaticallyset up different
不同的东西设定了不同的账户
accounts for different stuff,
如果我们为没有计划购买的东西买单了
and if we end up with extra money we didn’t expect,
比如从报税单发了笔横财
say from a windfall in a tax return,
甚至意想不到的优惠券
or even from an unexpected coupon,
这些新的额外账户里的钱最终还是会被花光
we end up blowing that moneyin this new extra account.
这就是为什么赌徒在用身家玩的时候下的赌注更大
It’s why gamblers gamble a lot more when they’re playing with house money.
我们一直持有不同的心理账户
We use different mentalaccounts all the time,
从我们为娱乐活动买的单
from the money we plan to spend on something fun
比如看电影或者玩乐
like movies and plays,
到为孩子们大学学费设立的储蓄账户
to the accounts we keep forour kids’ college tuition.
大脑总是自然地将每件事独立分开
Our minds just naturallykeep things separate.
问题在于 我们将事物分开的直觉
The problem is that our intuitionto keep things separate
违反了一个经典的经济学原则:货币是可替代的
violates a classic economic principle: the idea that money should be fungible.
古典经济学家常常困惑于这样一个事实
Classical economist are oftenpuzzled by the fact
就是我们不能只把钱当做钱
that we can’t just think of money as well, money.
为什么一张十美金的电影票
Why shouldn’t a ten dollar ticket
和十美金的现金不等值呢?
and a ten dollar bill be the same thing?
对于经济学家来说 两者是等价值的
To an economist, it should be.
但是对于我们而言 却不尽相同
But for our minds, not so much.
好消息是
The good news is
我们可以把这些有趣的心理账户为我们所用
that we can use these funny mental accounts to our advantage.
行为经济学家迪克•泰勒的一个朋友就做到了这一点
A friend of the behavioral economistDick Thaler did just this.
他开了一个新的储蓄账户
He set up a new account with money that
用他每年年底计划捐给慈善机构的钱
he planned to donate to charity at the end of every year.
每当有不好的事情发生
Each time something bad happened,
收到停车罚单或丢失一张价值10美金的电影票
a parking ticket or lost ten dollars for a movie,
他都会从这个账户取出相应的金额来
he took the money out ofthat account instead.
他的心理账户引导他认为
His mental accounting caused him to think
这笔钱不属于他
that the money wasn’t really his anyway,
这样当他经历损失的时候 他会觉得损失的少一点
and it made him feel less badwhenever he experienced losses.
我们的心理账户偏差
Our biases toward mental accounting
意味着我们的大脑
mean that our minds don’t work in the way
不以经济学家的方式思考
that classical economists like to think.
但是我们可以把这些心理账户偏差为我们所用
But we can use these mental accounting biases to our advantage.
我们可以对自己设置的账户和减掉的账户进行控制
We have control over which accounts we set up and which we deduct from
下次你碰巧弄丢了电影票
Just be sure to remember
一定要记住这点
that the next time you happen to lose your movie ticket.
画面字幕由Amara.org社区制作
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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视频概述

本文详细介绍了我们大部分人存在的认知偏见以及如何正确使用"心理账户"这一概念,修正认知偏见。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TuQ7YI-soQ

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