未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

认知偏见:本能认知

CRITICAL THINKING - Cognitive Biases: Alief [HD]

Hi! My name is Laurie Santos.
嗨!我是Laurie Santos
I teach psychology at Yale University.
我在耶鲁大学教授心理学
And today, I want to talk to you about aliefs.
今天 我将与大家探讨本能认知
This lecture is part of a series on cognitive biases.
本次视频是认知偏见系列课程的一部分
Imagine that you’re visiting the Grand Canyon
想象一下 你正在大峡谷旅游
and you decide to take a walk on their skywalk,
并决定去那巨大的玻璃天桥上走一走
a huge glass bridge suspended above the raging waters of the Colorado River.
这座天桥悬挂在科罗拉多河湍急的水流之上
Now imagine that you head out to the middle of the skywalk and look down.
假设你走到了玻璃天桥的中间 然后向下看
You see your feet resting on the clear glass, standing four thousand feet up.
你看见你的双脚站在透明的玻璃上 离地四千英尺
How do you think you would feel?
你觉得你会有什么感受?
If you’re like most people, you might feel pretty terrified.
和大多数人一样 你或许会感到十分害怕
Your heart would be faster, your palms would get sweaty,
你的心跳会加快 手心冒汗
you might grip on the railing just a little bit tighter.
你会紧紧抓着栏杆扶手
But the fact that you feel this scared is pretty weird.
但其实你产生这种恐惧感是相当荒唐的
After all, the Skywalk is perfectly safe.
毕竟 玻璃天桥是很安全的
It’s bolted in place with hundreds of steel girders.
数百条钢筋大梁支撑起这座桥梁
It’s exactly as strong as it would be if it were made with an opaque floor.
它完全和那些不透明的桥一样坚固
and even stronger than it would be
甚至说 它比那些
if it were only four hundred, or forty hundred, or even four feet in the air.
四百英尺高 四十英尺高 甚至四英尺高的普通桥梁还要坚固
It’s basically as solid as anything you have ever set foot on before.
总的来说 它比你曾踏足的任何地方都要坚固
You also have lots of data showing how safe it is.
大量的数据也显示它是非常安全的
Thousands of visitors walk along the skywalk every single year
每年都有数以千计的游客走过这座天桥
and not a single one of them has fallen through.
没有人从上面失足掉落
It’s safer than crossing the street, or riding in a car
它比过马路 或者是乘车
or even standing on a regular balcony.
甚至是站在阳台上都要安全
So why do you get so scared?
所以 你为什么会感到害怕?
What’s going on?
发生了什么?
The disconnect between your belief that the skywalk is perfectly safe
你对天桥绝对安全的信念
and your sense that you might to your death
和自己可能会死的感觉之间的脱节
shows the power of what are known as “aliefs”.
展现了“本能认知”的力量
Aliefs are automatic or habitual belief-like attitudes.
本能认知是无意识或习惯性的类似信念般的态度
They’re the way we instinctively respond to stuff
是我们面对事物本能的反应
stuff that we instinctively like or dislike
包括我们本能的喜欢或不喜欢的事物
or even stuff that we’re just really used to.
甚至是我们熟悉的事物
The term “alief” was coined by the philosopher Tamar Gendler.
“本能认知”一词由哲学家Tamar Gendler首次提出
She decided to use the word “alief” because aliefs are kinda like beliefs,
她之所以决定用“alief”一词 是因为“aliefs”和“beliefs”很像
except they’re affective and associative and automatic and arrational.
同时又具有情感的 联想的 无意识的和非理性的特点
So she called them “alief”.
她统称这些为“本能认知”
When you’re standing on the skywalk, you believe that you’re perfectly safe.
当你站在天桥上时 你相信自己非常安全
Otherwise, you wouldn’t have stepped out there.
不然你就不会走上桥去了
But you also simultaneously alieve that you’re at risk for falling,
但同时 本能认知也使你认为有坠落的风险
hence the sweaty palms.
因此手心出汗
And that’s the interesting thing about aliefs.
关于本能认知 还有一件有趣的事
They don’t necessarily track what we actually believe to be true,
本能认知不一定与我们认定的事情保持一致
like the fact that you’ll be perfectly safe on the skywalk.
比如我们相信在天桥上完全安全
The problem is that even we realize our aliefs don’t reflect reality,
问题是 即使我们发现本能认知没有反应现实
they don’t match what we believe to be true,
发现本能认知和我们相信的事实不一致
that they’re perfectly arrational,
发现本能认知是完全非理性的
our aliefs don’t just go away.
我们也无法摆脱本能认知
They stick around and guide many many of our behaviours anyway.
不管怎样本能认知都存在 并且引导着我们许多行为
It’s this stickiness of aliefs that make them so strange.
也正是这种无法摆脱的特性让我们的某些行为变得奇怪
That’s the reason we get scared at horror movies like Jaws,
这就是为什么即使我们知道电影里的鲨鱼只是一堆塑料
even though we know that the shark in the movie is just a bunch of plastic.
我们依然会被《大白鲨》这样的恐怖电影吓到
And as the psychologist Paul Rozin famously showed
正如心理学家Paul Rozin的著名论断
that’s why we wouldn’t want to eat a yummy piece of chocolate that shaped like this.
为什么我们不会想吃一块这种形状的美味巧克力
And as the cognitive scientist Fiery Cushman showed,
也正如认知科学家Fiery Cushman所证实的那样
that’s why you dont’t like using a hammer to do this,
即使你知道这只手是塑料的
even you know the hand is just plastic.
你也不会想要用锤子砸它
But aliefs are also at work in more serious cases.
不过 在更严肃的情况下本能认知也起作用
If you’ve lived in a society structured by a legacy of racial bias,
如果你生活在一个充满种族歧视的社会
you may believe that African-Americans and Caucasians are equal,
你也许会相信美国的黑人和白人是平等的
but you’re aliefs may reflect a whole host of implicit racial biases.
但是你的本能认知可能会反映出一大堆隐性的种族偏见
If you have lived in a society where men tend to be doctors and women tend to be nueses.
如果你生活在一个“男人当医生 女人当护士”的社会
You may believe that women are just as good as men at science,
你可能会相信在科学界女人和男人旗鼓相当
but your aliefs might be differnt.
但是你的本能认知也许恰恰相反
And as many psychologists have recently shown
最近 许多心理学家已经证实
those biased aliefs may play a bigger role in your hiring decisions more than you might think.
本能认知对你是否被录用的影响比你想象的大得多
So next time you hesitate to touch a plastic spider,
所以下一次当你对触摸塑料蜘蛛犹豫不决时
or cry at a sad but fictional movie,
或者是为虚构电影悲剧痛哭流涕时
or even notice some of your mistaken biases,
又或者发现自己有一些错误的偏见时
you’ll know that these are your powerful aliefs at work.
你该知道 这些都是你强有力的本能认知在起作用

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

为什么有的人“嘴上说着不要,身体却很诚实”?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

威猛星

审核员

审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCBALVumrUQ

相关推荐