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酿酒的化学

Craft Beer Chemistry

Are you overwhelmed by the selection in the beer aisle?
你是否会为选择啤酒种类而不知所措?
Bacon flavour styles?
培根风味啤酒?
A quadruple IPA with absurdly high alcohol content?
超高酒精含量的四料IPA啤酒?
Pistachio cream ale?
开心果奶油啤酒?
Craft brews are boldly going where no beer has gone before!
精酿啤酒另辟蹊径 达到新的高度
and all those different tastes come down to one thing
这么多不同口味 都源于一个过程
You guess it?
你猜到了吗?
Chemistry.
化学反应
So If you drink responsibly this Saint Patrick’s Day,
如果你在圣帕特里克节没喝醉
you might even remember some of these facts
你没准还能回忆起一些酿酒知识
to impress your friends.
让朋友们另眼相看
[Reactions intro]
《化学反应》 由美国化学协会制作
Every beer,
所有啤酒
from the cheapest swill to the wildest craft brew
从最廉价的劣质酒到最狂野的精酿
is made the same way.
都遵循同样的制作过程
heat a grain in water until enzymes break down this starches
把谷物放到水里加热直到酶将淀粉分解
into a sugar solution called a wort.
得到糖溶液 也就是麦芽汁
Throw in some hops then add some yeast
洒入一些啤酒花 加点酵母
to turn your wort into a deliciously carbonated alcoholic beverage.
麦芽汁就变成了美味的含气酒精饮料
Before that grain takes a bath, though, it gets malted.
当然 谷物放入水之前要先进行麦芽化
Now this isn’t your 50’s-style diner malt, either.
这儿说的可不是50年代风格餐厅的麦乳精
Malting is the process of toasting the grain to create flavor compounds.
麦芽化是烘焙谷物使其产生风味的过程
You can buy all kinds of malt, depending on what kind of beer you want to make.
可以根据想制作的啤酒种类买到各种麦芽
Also important is temperature.
温度也很重要
When you dunk those malted grains into that water,
当麦芽化的谷物浸入水中
the temperature you heat them to can change up the taste of your beer.
加热的温度可以改变酿造出的啤酒的味道
Certain enzymes that break down the starches work with low heat,
某些分解淀粉的酶在低热下起作用
others only get activated at higher temperatures.
另一些酶只有在高温下才能被激活
Different enzymes, different taste.
不同的酶产生不同的味道
Then hops do the rest of the heavy lifting.
接下来的重任就交给啤酒花了
You IPA lovers out there can thank two types of compounds called alpha and beta acids
IPA爱好者得感谢α酸和β酸这两种化合物
for your favorite brew’s flavor.
它们贡献了你最爱的啤酒味
The main alpha acid is called humulone.
其中主要的α酸 名为葎草酮
Humulone has a soft bitter flavor
它有一种淡淡的苦味
that really makes a beer taste “hoppy”.
使啤酒尝起来有“酒花味”
Beta acids take longer to contribute their flavor to a beer,
β酸对啤酒味的贡献需要更长时间
so they play a more prominent role in aged brews.
所以在陈酿啤酒中起更加重要的作用
It’s not just bitter ales like IPAs that get hops.
啤酒花不仅用于像IPA这样的苦啤酒
Even mild-mannered lagers need them.
即使是温和的拉格啤酒也需要
But bitterness is just one of the results of the chemical reactions that happen when hops meet wort.
苦味只是啤酒花遇到麦汁时所产生的化学反应之一
Essential oils are hops’ other crucial contribution.
啤酒花的另一个重要贡献是精油
They add more complex flavors than the acid’s bitterness.
不同于酸类产生苦味 精油赋予更丰富的口味
There are 22 different essential oils
已知有22种不同味道的精油
known to give aroma or flavor to beer.
能给啤酒增添芬芳气味
On to yeast.
再来说说酵母
Yeast ferments beer by eating up the sugars and turning them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
酵母通过分解糖将其转化为酒精和二氧化碳
So in a bottle or can, that carbon dioxide
这些酒瓶或是易拉罐中的二氧化碳
gives beer bubbles and a little bit of bite.
给啤酒增添了泡沫和一点儿口感
Some beers, like stouts, have a creamier, thicker taste.
有些啤酒 比如黑啤 口感更绵密更浓厚
To get that taste right out of the tap,
为了打开龙头就能享受这种口味
brewers and bar owners replace most of that carbon dioxide with nitrogen gas.
啤酒商和酒吧老板用氮气替代了大部分二氧化碳
Nitro beer is one of the newest frontiers in craft brewing.
氮气啤酒是精酿的最新领域之一
Nitrogen gas is much less soluble in water than carbon dioxide.
氮气在水中的溶解度比二氧化碳低得多
That means fewer overall bubbles in your beer,
这意味着溶解在啤酒里的泡沫更少
contributing to that creamy drinkability.
增加了饮用时绵密的口感
Real quick, the green beer that pops up this time of year
很快要到喝绿色啤酒的时节
also has its roots in chemistry
绿色啤酒也是因为化学反应
Sadly it’s not leprechaun magic,
很遗憾 并不是绿衣老矮人施的魔法
but Di-molecules are extracted from plants or synthesized in a lab.
而是从植物中提取或在实验室合成的“魔法分子”
Don’t forget, you don’t have to go to a bar to try a bunch of different beers.
别忘了 你不必非得去酒吧尝试各种啤酒
You can brew your own at home!
你可以在家自己酿酒
Grab a homebrew kit and start experimenting.
拿出自酿的工具 开始试验吧
So you know what goes best with beer?
你知道啤酒与什么最配吗?
Pizza.
披萨
Check out our video on the chemistry of pizza,
请观看我们关于披萨化学反应的视频
and for booze facts, check out the chemistry of champagne.
想了解更多酒的知识 请观看香槟化学反应的视频
Be sure to subscribe too for a weekly dose of chemistry fun.
记得订阅 享受每周一次的化学乐趣

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视频概述

想知道美味的啤酒是怎么制作的吗?想了解酿酒的化学过程吗?请点击《酿酒的化学》

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翻译译者

zbz

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vW99JEaDApY

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