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破解反物质之谜 – 译学馆
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破解反物质之谜

Cracking the antimatter mystery: A three minute guide

The existence of our universe is a puzzle.
宇宙的存在是一个未解之谜
During the Big Bang, matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts
大爆炸时期 物质和反物质应该是等量产生的
and immediately annihilated each other.
并且立即互相湮灭
But somehow matter prevailed, and the Universe as we know it came to be.
但不知何故 物质占了上风 我们所知道的宇宙就这样形成了
Scientists have long searched for the secret to matter’s dominance.
科学家们长期以来一直在研究物质占优势的秘密
Now, researchers in Japan think they might have found it –
如今 日本的研究人员认为他们可能发现了答案
or at least a strong suggestion that differences exist
或者说至少是一个有力的证据
between particles called neutrinos and antineutrinos,
表明了中微子和反中微子之间存在着差异
which could explain why the Universe is the way it is.
这就可以解释为什么宇宙是这样的
三分钟破解反物质之谜
Subatomic particles of matter are the building blocks of our Universe.
物质的亚原子粒子是宇宙的基石
But there’s also antimatter – particles with the same mass but opposite electrical charges.
但也有反物质 即质量相同电荷相反的粒子
In theory, a universe made up entirely of antimatter would be indistinguishable from our own,
理论上来说 完全由反物质组成的宇宙会与我们的宇宙难以区分
and physics would work in exactly the same way.
物理定律也应该完全相同
But in 1964, researchers observed that sometimes
但在1964年 研究人员发现有时候
nature treats matter and antimatter slightly differently
大自然对物质和反物质的处理略有不同
– a phenomenon known as CP violation.
这一现象被称为“CP破坏”
By skewing the balance between matter and antimatter,
通过物质与反物质之间的不平衡
this helped to explain the imbalance of the Universe.
这有助于解释宇宙的不平衡
But the discovered differences, which happen only in certain kinds of particles,
但是所发现的这种差异只存在于特定的粒子中
can only account for a tiny excess of matter.
只能解释物质的微小过剩
Physicists need to find other ways that nature treats matter and antimatter differently,
物理学家需要找到 大自然区别对待物质和反物质的其他的方式
and that has a much bigger effect.
而且这个方式要能够产生更大的影响
That’s what a huge experiment under a mountain in Japan might have found.
这就是在日本一座山下进行的庞大实验可能发现的结果
The international collaboration is called Tokai to Kamioka, or T2K,
这项国际合作被称为东海到神冈或者T2K
and it studies near-massless particles called neutrinos.
它研究的是被称为中微子的近无质量粒子
A prominent theory says that in the hot early Universe,
某个著名理论认为 在炙热的早期宇宙
just moments after the Big Bang,
也就是大爆炸之后不久
distant cousins of the neutrino could have shown a preference
在是分解成物质还是反物质的问题上 中微子的远亲
in whether they broke down into matter or antimatter.
可能会表现出一种偏好
And if so, that would be enough to explain today’s imbalance.
如果是这样 那就足够解释今天的物质失衡
Because regular neutrinos today should show similar behaviour,
因为普通中微子应该表现出类似的行为
it’s a theory that scientists can test.
这是科学家能够检验的理论
The T2K experiment in Japan does this by generating two streams of particles –
日本的T2K实验是通过产生两股粒子流来实现的
one of neutrinos and the other of antineutrinos.
一股是中微子 另一股是反中微子
They shoot these beams from the seaside village of Tokai to Super Kamiokande,
他们将这些光束从东海的海边村庄射向超级神冈
a neutrino detector that lies underneath Mount Ikeno, 295 kilometres away.
也就是位于295公里外伊基诺火山下的中微子探测器
Researchers know how many particles have been produced in Tokai,
研究人员知道在东海产生了多少粒子
which means that they should also know how many they’d see at Super Kamiokande,
这意味着如果这两种粒子表现相同的话
if both types of particles behave in the same way.
他们也应该知道在超级神冈有多少粒子
What they found, however, was that the neutrino and antineutrino beams
然而他们发现中微子和反中微子束
weren’t behaving identically.
表现得并不相同
Today’s result is the strongest evidence yet that a difference exists
对于中微子和反中微子的行为存在差异
in the behaviour of neutrinos and antineutrinos,
如今的结果就是最强有力的证明
a difference which could then be enough
这种差异足以
to explain the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the Universe.
解释宇宙中物质和反物质的不平衡
But this is only the beginning of the story.
但这才是故事的开始
The latest observation is evidence for the behaviour,
最新的观察结果为这种行为提供了证据
but researchers can’t be sure.
但是研究人员还不能确定
There’s about a 1 in 370 chance that the same discrepancy could occur through random variations.
大约有370分之一的几率 相同的差异会通过随机变化发生
To be certain, they’ll have to gather much more data,
为了有确定的结果 他们可能还要
probably with a whole new generation of experiments.
通过新一代的实验收集更多证据
Larger scale experimental set ups are already under construction –
更大规模的实验装置已经在建设中
Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan and DUNE in the United States.
比如日本的Hyper-Kamiokande 和美国的DUNE
These experiments will be used to untangle the physics of neutrinos further,
这些实验将被用来进一步解释中微子的物理学
and will hopefully provide answers
并且有望解答
to one of the greatest mysteries surrounding the origin of our Universe.
关于我们宇宙起源的最大谜团之一

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视频概述

宇宙是如何产生的?本该有相同表现的物质和反物质为何又会失衡?一起来看看科学家们的研究吧

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翻译译者

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审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdCSNakxdFg

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