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手机的辐射对身体有害吗?

Could Your Phone Hurt You? Electromagnetic Pollution

Electricity is all around us all the time.​
电流一直充斥在我们的身边
It makes our lives easier, safer, more fun,​
使我们的生活更便捷 更安全 更有趣
and most of us never think about it.​
而大多数人也从没留意过它
But is there such a thing as too much electricity? ​
但有电流过剩这回事吗?
Could the thing that is the foundation of the modern world​
电流作为现代世界的基础
slowly be killing us?​
是否正在慢慢地杀死我们?
Before we dive deeper,
在深入研究之前
let’s try to understand what electricity is
先试着理解什么是电流
and how it affects us.​
它又是怎么影响我们的
Electricity is the movement of an electric charge.​
电流就是电荷的移动
This movement generates ​​Electric​ and ​Magnetic Fields​.
电荷移动产生电场和磁场
They spread out through space and carry energy.​
电场和磁场在空间内延伸 并携带能量
We call this phenomenon:​ ​​​Electromagnetic Radiation​.​
我们称这个现象为:电磁辐射
Radiation is a word that makes people very nervous.​
人们对辐射这个词闻之色变
But, to radiate just means, “giving off”.​
但辐射只意味着“放出”
Like when the radiator in your house gives off heat​
就像房子里散热器散发出的热
in the form of infrared radiation.​
以红外辐射的形式存在
Different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum​
电磁波谱的不同射频
correspond to different types of radiation.​
对应不同类型的辐射
And, many of them are perfectly harmless.​
而许多辐射是完全无害的
Some of them can be dangerous though.​
但是一些辐射还是有危险
Radiation with very short wavelengths​ like
像紫外线 X射线还有伽马射线
UV Light, X-Rays, and Gamma Rays​
这样波长非常短的辐射
are strong enough to rip electrons out of their atoms,​
能量强到可以剥离原子周围的电子
which can cause burns and genetic damage.​
引起烧伤和遗传性损伤
This is what many people have in mind
这就是许多人听到辐射这个词时
when they hear the term “radiation”.​
脑海中浮现的印象
The rest of the spectrum covers a large range of longer waves​
剩下的波谱覆盖了大范围较长波长的辐射波
from Visible Light, Infrared,​ Microwaves to Radio Waves.​
从可见光 红外线 微波到无线电波
This is the kind of radiation that’s emitted by
而这是所有人类科技产品
all sorts of human technology:
比如手机 WiFi路由器
mobile phones, Wi-Fi routers,​
电缆 家用电器
electric power lines, and household appliances.​
发出的辐射
This radiation doesn’t disrupt molecules in our body.​
这种辐射不会破坏我们身体里的化学分子
However, some kinds of radiation can stimulate muscles and nerves​
但是 一些辐射可以刺激肌肉和神经
and can also make the hair on your body vibrate,​
还会使体毛颤动
which can sometimes cause a tingly feeling above certain threshold values.​
这些刺激有时会超过阈值 让人产生刺痛感
Other kinds are useful for making dinner.​
其他辐射则可以用来制作晚餐
Microwaves push the water molecules in your food around​
微波把食物里的水分子推来推去
which warms it up.​
使其变热
This happens to us all the time.​
我们一直在经历这些
For example, the pleasant warmth you feel at the beach​
例如 在沙滩上感受到令人愉悦的温暖
is your skin heating up from exposure to​
就是因为你的皮肤暴露在太阳光下
electromagnetic infrared radiation from the sun.​
太阳光的红外电磁辐射使之变暖
We are surrounded by natural, and generally harmless
我们一直处在电磁辐射的包围中
sources of electromagnetic radiation all the time​ and always have been.
这些电磁辐射自然而又基本无害
​But, since the Industrial Revolution,
但是 从工业革命开始
we have added a lot of it to our immediate environment.​
我们在直接环境中加入了过多的辐射
The question of whether this is actually dangerous​
辐射是否真的有危险?这个问题
first got public attention when a 1979 study​
首次引起广泛关注 是因为1979年的一项研究
linked leukemia to living near power lines.​
将白血病和住处周边的电线联系在了一起
This particular study was quickly discredited though.​
然而这项特别的研究很快就被推翻了
The connection could not be explained​
这种联系解释不通
and no direct causal link was confirmed.​
其直接的因果关系也没有证实
But once this had been proposed, the idea persisted.​
但是这个观点一旦被提出 它就一直存在
And the thousands of studies about possible dangers​
成千上万关于辐射危险可能性的研究
illustrate that it’s still seen as a very real threat.​
表明辐射仍然被看做一个真正的威胁
A lot of people claim to be sensitive to the radiation
许多人声称受到了某些辐射的影响
​coming from our appliances and cell phones.​
这些辐射来自电器和手机
They report symptoms like headaches,
据报道 他们有许多症状如头痛
nausea,skin reactions,​
恶心 皮肤反应
burning eyes, or exhaustion.​
眼睛干涩 浑身无力等
But those are just affects reported on a day-to-day basis.​
但是报道的这些症状只是基于日常生活影响的层面
A few studies have found much more unsettling results.​
一些研究发现了更多让人不安的结果
Like possible connections between the side of the brain
比如 人们在使用手机时所使用的大脑部位
which people use when they are on their phones
和脑肿瘤发生部位之间
and the appearance of brain tumors.​
可能有联系
The question that science is trying to answer
科学正在尽力解答的问题
is not so much about the acute effects of irradiation.​
并不和辐射是否有严重影响十分相关
We know, for example, ​that
例如 我们知道
X-Ray calls middle damage to the DNA in your cells​
X射线会对细胞DNA造成中间损伤
but that the same doesn’t happen with radio waves.​
但无线电波就不会这样
The question is rather:​
问题是
It’s the sort of weak electromagnetic radiation we are constantly surrounded by​
我们长期处在各种弱电磁辐射的包围中
harmful in the long run as a result of some as-yet-unknown mechanism?
会不会通过未知机理而受到伤害?
Answering this question was much harder than we first thought.​
回答这个问题比我们想象中要难得多
There are thousands of primary sources,
目前 有很多关于该问题的主源 报道
reports and statements by an onslaught of different organizations.​
和遭到不同组织猛攻的声明
So,we read a lot for this video.​
因此制作视频前 我们读了很多相关内容
You can take a look at our research in the video description.​
你可以在视频简介中看一下我们的研究
What we found is that this debate is a good example​
我们发现这次讨论可以作为很好的例子
of how science should be communicated and how it shouldn’t.​
来探讨科学应该如何相通 以及如何不相通
Many of the much-cited studies that spread
许多常被提及的研究
panic about electromagnetic radiation​ are highly controversial.
传播电磁辐射恐慌 这受到了广大争议
For example,
例如
a series of population studies based on surveys and self-reporting.​
一系列基于调查和私人报道的群体研究
What this means is, for example,​
这指的是 举个例子
asking brain tumor patients how much they think
就像问脑肿瘤病人 他们认为自己过去几年
they used their phone in the last few years.​
使用了多长时间的手机
The problem is that people are unreliable.​
问题在于 人是不可靠的
We tend to misremember things or can be influenced easily.​
因为我们容易记错事情或者容易受到影响
On top of this,​ studies or media reports
在此基础上 研究和媒体报道
may be cherry picking the findings that best suit their opinion​
可能会优先选择最契合他们观点的
or make for the most exciting headline.​
或能写出最吸人眼球标题的结果
For example,​ a study
例如 一个有关于
looking for cancer in rats and mice from cell phone radiation.​
大小鼠接受手机辐射后是否得癌症的研究
The results seemed to show a connection.​
其实验结果似乎展示了某种联系
But,for some reason, only in male rats.​
但是 由于某种原因 只有雄鼠才符合
And none at all in mice.​
而且并非所有的老鼠都符合
But it was ​​reported​ as if this study did prove​
但是这被报道得好像这个研究已经证明了
that mobile phone radiation causes cancer.​
手机辐射会导致癌症
Unfortunately this is the case for studies
不幸的是 这正是研究中所存在的情况
with both positive and negative findings on the issue.​
因为研究一个问题可以有积极和消极的结果
Another aspect
另一方面
Is the WHO did a official classic radio frequency fields
WHO官方规定了可能致癌的
as possibly carcinogenic.​
经典无线电频率范围
But what this actually means​ is that there are some hints
这实际上意味着 一定的线索表明
that they might cause cancer,
辐射还是有可能致癌的
but we can’t prove it,
只是我们还不能证明
and that we will keep an eye out.​
我们仍需要留心这方面问题
So,if we zoom out a bit, what’s the big picture?​
如果我们稍微缩小范围 那具体现象是什么呢?
On the whole, ​ there was ​was no consistent evidence in human studies​
整体看 人类的研究中没有坚定的证据可以证明
that electromagnetic radiation below exposure value limits causes health problems.​
暴露阈限值以下的电磁辐射会导致健康问题
There are some statistical associations​
也有些统计关联分析
but they’re mostly weak and inconsistent.​
但它们大多数苍白无力 前后矛盾
If there were any definite cause-effect relations​,
如果有确切的因果联系
we would know by now, because of all the data we have.​
以我们拥有的数据 我们现在早就知道了
So based on the current state of science,​
因此 根据目前的科学声明
should you worry about the radiation
你应该担心
from your laptop, cell phone or TV? ​
笔记本电脑 手机或电视的辐射吗?
The answer is no.​ You shouldn’t.​
答案是不 你不应该
But what about the people that say it ​​is​ harming them? ​
可是有些人为什么说辐射在伤害他们呢?
Research show they could be experiencing
研究显示他们可能正在经历
​what’s known as the ​​Nocebo Effect​.​
著名的反安慰剂效应
If you have a headache and happen to
如果你头疼 又刚巧
start feeling better right when you switch off your laptop, ​
在关掉笔记本电脑时便开始好转
you might see a connection between those two things.​
那你很可能就将两件事联系在一起了
Once you get this suspicion,
一旦你有了疑心
the idea alone that weak radiation might harm you​
弱辐射可能伤害你的观点
could be the very thing harming you.​
就可能成为真正伤害你的东西
It’s easy to belittle these people;​
我们很容易小视这些人
most of them feel they’re not being taken seriously,​
这些人中的大多数感觉他们没有受到重视
which makes the situation even worse for them.​
这反而使他们的状况变得更糟了
They should get support.​
他们应该获得支持
But,it’s important to be aware that, so far, ​
但是更该关注的是 目前为止
we have no robust evidence that electricity
我们还没有稳健的证据证明
below safety limits has any negative effect on humans.​
低于安全限制的电流对人类有消极影响
In the attention economy we live in,​
在我们生活的注意力经济里
talking about unproven dangers can make us neglect things
讨论没被证实的危险会使我们忽视
that we know for sure are bad for us.​
已被证实的有害事物
Just one example:​ Outdoor air pollution is linked to
就举一个例子 户外空气污染和
4.2 million premature deaths each year, ​
每年420万早产儿的死亡有关
and is definitely something we could have a real impact on today.​
这确实是我们如今真正影响到的事物
Still to make people feel safe, and just to make sure
但是为了让人们感到安全 或只是确认
there are several long-term studies ongoing already.​
仍然有正在进行的相关长期研究
For example, the Cosmos study that will
例如 宇宙研究将
look at the possible health impacts of cell phone use
着眼于手机使用可能产生的健康影响
by exactly measuring frequency and duration of phone calls.​
通过准确测量手机通话的频率和时长来实现
But while we wait for the conclusion of these long-term studies,​
但是当我们等待这些长期研究的结论时
there are a lot more pressing problems to focus on.​
还有更迫切的问题需要去注意
Like, instead of worrying what devices and networks do to your health, ​
比如 与其担心设备和网络对健康的影响
consider how they can harm you in other ways.​
不如想想它们可以用其他方式伤害你
When we shop online, share photos,​
当我们网购 晒照片
or watch YouTube videos,​
或者看油管视频时
we leave a trail of accounts and passwords all over the Internet.​
我们在整个网络中留下了账号和密码的足迹
Radio waves may not hurt us, ​
无线电波可能不会伤害我们
but people try to take advantage of our data certainly will.​
但想利用我们个人数据的人肯定会
If a service becomes compromised, hackers can get your password.​
如果服务器瘫痪 黑客可以获得你的密码
And if you use the same login details anywhere else,​
如果你到处使用相同的登录详细信息
they can easily slip into your other accounts.​
他们可以轻易溜进你的其他账户
That’s why we use ​​Dashlane​.​
这就是我们推荐使用Dashlane密码管理器的原因
It’s just one app to stay safe online on any device, ​
这是个可以在任何设备安全上网
operating system, or browser.​
操作系统或者浏览网页的APP
It creates super-strong, unique passwords​
它可以提供超级强大的独特密码
but still lets you change them with just one click.​
但仍然可以通过简单点击来修改密码
Dashlane​​ will even send you breach​ ​alerts
当你的站点被入侵时
when sites you use get hacked and includes VPN for every device
密码管理器和每个设备的VPN会发送入侵警告
so you can securely browse from anywhere in the world​
因此你可以在世界任何地方安全上网
like on your home Wi-Fi.​
就像连着你家的WIFI一样
Because we want you to have nice things, ​
因为我们想你拥有好的东西
you can get a 30-day free trial of ​​Dashlane
所以你可以免费试用该APP30天
​by going to:​dashlane.com /kurzgesagt
登录网址dashlane.com/kurzgesagt获取
​If you like it, use the code, “​​Kurzgesagt​” and checkout.​
如果你喜欢这个App 使用代码“Kurzgesagt”进行验证
The first 200 people will get 10% off.​
前200名用户将获9折优惠

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视频概述

先讲了工业革命后电流所衍生出的电子产品的电磁辐射问题,但没有明确的证据可以证明。后延伸到上网安全地问题,然后顺着提出了Dashlane这个软件,以广告结尾。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfgT6zx4k3Q

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