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人是否会永生

Could You Live Forever?

这里是Vsauce 我是主持人范海辛……是博士范海辛 我听说
Vsauce, I’m Van Helsing … Dr. Jake Van Helsing. I hear that there is somebody ill
这里有人病了
inside.
噢 这里很漂亮 非常漂亮 你闻到了吗?
Oh, this is gorgeous. Absolutely beautiful and can you smell that?
你能闻到疾病的气息
You can actually smell the sickness
在空气中 你并不能 除了我 很多博士都对此进行了研究 结果表明
in the air. No really you can. Doctors, other than myself, have done a study that have shown that when you’re
当我们生病的时候 体内的信息素在发生变化 比如 得了糖尿病的人呼吸
sick in pheromones,change,for example if someone has diabetes their breath can become
会加重
stale or sour.
病人在这里吗?
Is the patient in here?
哦 天呐 这太让人好奇了
Oh my this is curious.
好吧……我有一个好消息和一个坏消息 好消息是 你的书房很漂亮
Well…I have good news and I have bad news. The good news is that your study is fantastic.
这得归功于你的室内装修师 坏消息是 这个引人注目的人
Kudos to your interior decorator. The bad news is that this man is spectacularly no
不再活着 他已经死了
longer alive. He is quite dead.
你知道 当你死的时候 会发生一些有趣的事情 你身体的一部分仍就活着
You know, something interesting happens when you die. Parts of you are still alive, for
比如 你身体内大部分细胞都无意的进行新陈代谢的功能
example most of our cells are unaware and continue their metabolic functions.
但是 当你死的时候 你的心脏停止跳动 导致氧气无法进入你的体内
But when you do die your heart stops beating which keeps oxygen from going to your organs.
没有氧气 你的大脑就会停止运转 失去意识
Without oxygen your brain can’t regulate the body’s functions and it can no longer
这个时候 体内的细胞逐渐死亡 但是 你的内脏里 仍有4磅的细菌
support consciousness. At this point, the cells start dying. But the 4 pounds of bacteria
并且这些细菌仍在活跃着 而此时你已经无法调用免疫系统来阻止这些细菌
you have in your gut are still very much alive, and since they have no immune system to stop
它们就开始从里到外侵蚀你的身体
them, start to consume you from the inside out.
但这并不是我们生活追求的全部 我们并没忘记追求长生不老
But isn’t that what we are all after … the pursuit of life. The ability to live forever,
所以 让我们闭上眼睛 来想象一下人得到永生之后
to not be forgotten. So let’s imagine living forever. Close your eyes and really imagine
的样子吧
it.
时间是个很广阔的概念
Time is vast.
我们很容易展望到一百年 甚至一千年以后 而现在 让我们来想象一下五十亿年以后
It is easy to envision a hundred years, a thousand years. But imagine 5 billion
到那时 太阳会变成一个“红巨人” 并逐渐扩大 地球上的海洋
years from now when our Sun becomes a Red Giant and begins to expand. The oceans on
完全蒸发 最终太阳将地球毁灭 而五十亿年
Earth boil away and eventually the Sun devours our planet. And there you are 5 billion years
后的你 在芸芸众生面前 只不过是一粒灰尘
later which would still be a speck of dust in the infinite life ahead of you.
张开你的眼睛 我想让你想象一下别的东西 想象一下你已经逝世了 但你会发现你并不能
Open your eyes and I want you to imagine something else. Imagine no longer being alive. You can’t
你能吗?我们想象不到不存在的东西 但是你可以将其转化为客观存在的事物
can you? We can’t comprehend nothingness, just thinking about nothing is something.
虽然我们知道有一天自己会离开人世 但是我们仍无法想象出自己已经不在人世了
But we know at some point we are going to die yet we can’t imagine not being alive.
这就是关于死亡的悖论 同时也是人类追求长生的原因
It’s called the Mortality Paradox. And this is what drives humanity to pursue living forever.
有些人尝试以不同的方式来实现长生 比如你身边没有因自然而死的朋友
Some of us try to achieve it in very different ways, like your friend here who did not die
事实上 这个原因绝非自然因素 作为范海辛
of natural causes. In fact, the cause was quite … unnatural. As a Van Helsing, one
我的研究领域之一便是吸血鬼 通过他脖子上的两个洞便可得知他即将变成吸血鬼
of my fields of study is Vampirism, and judging by the two holes on his neck, he’s on his
任何时候都有可能变身……你可能不太想看
way to becoming a vampire … he might turn at any moment … you know,you should probably look away.
哦!我错过了! 回来吧 恶魔 回来!回来!
Oh! I missed! Back demon, back! Back!
人类开始追求获得长生
Just the idea of extending one’s existence drives man towards seeking out or pursuing
吸血鬼这一类的东西 但是这似乎不是外来的概念 也没有像
an idea like vampirism, but its not as if this concept is foreign or as crazy as some
追求其他东西一样疯狂
other pursuits.
如果时光倒退4000年 回到公元前2100年 我们拥有第一批文学著作之一
If we go back 4,000 years to 2,100BC we have one of the first great works of literature,
吉尔伽美什史诗 在诗中 吉尔伽美什描述了自己去找永生秘诀的一段旅程
the Epic of Gilgamesh, where Gilgamesh goes on a journey to find the secret of eternal
时间再推到公元220年先秦时期 中国的皇帝秦始皇
life. Fast forward to 220BC with Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China, who tried so hard
尤为抵制死亡 如果你在他面前提到了这个词 你将被处决 他
to fend off death that if you mentioned the word around him you would be executed. He
很害怕死亡 为此他甚至修建了大型的建筑 也就是我们
was so afraid of dying that he went so far as to have a giant barricade built, what we
现在所说的—长城 众所周知 他还组建了一个1000人的探险队
now know as the Great Wall of China. He also famously sent an expedition of over 1000 people
派他们前去寻找长生不老药 那是一种珍贵的液体 能够使他
on a mission to find the elixir of immortality – that precious liquid that would keep him
永久长寿
alive.
令人讽刺的是 秦始皇因摄入贡丸而死亡 但他的医生
In a cruel case of irony, Qin Shi Huang ended up dying by ingesting mercury pills that his
却正好认为贡丸应该起到相反的作用(使他长生) 现在 若想获得长生 你通常需要
physicians had thought would do just the opposite. Now,in generally to live forever required
确保你活着 但是如果现在有一种方法能够让你回到过去呢?
that you already be alive … but what if there was a way to bring you back once you
我有一个同事 他的工作很令人震惊
had passed on? I have a colleague who’s been working on something quite … shocking
我们可以试试 我把尸体弄走 然后我们将在朋友的实验室见面
that we could try.Let me grab that corpse and I’ll meet you at my friend’s laboratory
——找一下写着维克多 弗兰肯斯坦的标志
– look for the sign that says Dr. Victor Frankenstein.
哈!电力简直是现代的一个奇迹 不是吗?古希腊的人们
Gah! Electricity really is a modern marvel, isn’t it? Back in ancient Greece it was
认为我们肌肉的收缩是因为有液体穿过我们的神经
believed that our muscles contracted because of fluid flowing through our nerves and that
1500年来人们一直保持着这样的观念 后来人们又认为是动物的灵魂在起作用
was the thinking for 1500 years. Then it was considered that animal spirits were the cause.
再后来人们意识到是电流的原因
And then came electricity!
1780年,路易吉·伽伐尼发现 如果他将电极附在肌肉上
In the 1780s Luigi Galvani discovered that if he attached electrodes to muscles and sent
向电极输送电流 肌肉就开始运动 众所周知
a current of electricity through it, the muscles would start to move. He tried it most famously
他用青蛙的腿来做实验 随后他的外甥又迈出了逻辑性的一步 他把
with frog legs and his nephew made the next logical step and used it on the body of a
最近死亡的罪犯的尸体拿来做实验 在观众的注视下 尸体的下颌开始颤动
recently deceased criminal. During the public demonstration the jaw began to quiver, the
原来紧握着的右手开始一张一合 大腿开始动了起来 最后甚至张开了一只眼睛
right hand clenched open and closed, legs and thighs began to move and an eye even popped
大多数旁观者都以为自己看到了尸体的复活
open. Most spectators thought they were witnessing a re-animation.
现在 如果弗兰肯斯坦和我的理论是正确的 即我们的身体里大量的电流
Now, if Frankenstein’s and I’s theory is correct, with the right amount of continuous
且成比例分布 那么我们应该点燃生命的火花
electricity, distributed across the body proportionally, we should be able to re-ignite that spark
—现代的普罗米修斯
of life – our modern prometheus.
准备好了吗? 我们要开始了! 倒数:3! 2! 1! 开始!
Are you ready?Here we go! One! two! three!
是的!是的!它在动!看看我的杰作 我深深地感到绝望
Yes! Yes! It’s working! It’s working! Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!
所以……事实证明我是错的 伽尔法尼认为他所看到的是“动物
So … it turns out I was wrong.
电流” 这是一种跟正常电流相似的流体 贯穿着动物体内的
Galvani thought that what he was witnessing was “animal electricity”,a fluid similar to normal electricity that flowed through an animal’s
肌肉和神经 而实际上仅仅是肌肉对
muscles and nerves. When in reality it was just the muscles reacting to the electrical
两种金属在潮湿的环境下相碰后所产生的电流的反应 但是
current coming into contact with two different metals in a damp environment. But there are
还有其它的复活方法
But there are other options for resurrection.
人体冷冻法是指在零下238华氏度这样极冷的环境下保存人的遗体
Cryonics is the preservation of human bodies in extremely cold temperatures, below -238F.
现在 如果你死了 你的遗体可以以20万美元的低价进行冷冻保存
Currently you could get yourself crypreserved immediately after death for the low price
—或者如果这对于你的血液来说有一点贵—那就花8万美元保存你的主要躯干
of $200,000 – or if that is a little rich for your blood – just the head for $80,000
等有一天你会在科学的帮助下复活
in hopes that one day science will be able to revive you.
这就是一种极冷的木乃伊 说到这 我们就会知道
It is the incredibly cold version of a mummy. And speaking of which, the reason ancient
古埃及人费那么多力气在遗体的保存上的原因就是希望
Egyptians put so much effort into the proper preservation of their dead was in hopes that
有一天能将遗体复活 那时候 他们仍将是自己 备注:
if the corpse was suddenly brought back to life, they’d still be themselves. Side note:
用来保存遗体的物质之一是沥青 在波斯语中就是“mum”
One of the substances used to treat the body is called bitumen which in Persian is mum
而这就是我们为什么称他们为“木乃伊”的原因
hence the reason we call them mummies.
不幸的是 电气化 冷藏法 还有木乃伊化至今仍未能使任何人复活
Unfortunately, electrification, cryopreservation, and mummification have yet to revive any person.
然而 古希腊人在长生这个问题上还有备份计划
However, the ancient Egyptians did have a back-up plan for living forever which is actually
这个计划特别简单:你不必活在人世 不必永垂不朽
pretty simple: You don’t have to be alive to be immortal.
就在这停下 对 不要动 在荷马的伊利亚特中 阿基里斯面临着两种选择
Stop right there. Yes, don’t move. In Homer’s Iliad, Achilles is given the choice between
一个是长寿 一个是不朽的光辉 他最终选择了不朽的光辉 因为他知道 即使在他死了很久以后
a long life or eternal glory. He chose eternal glory because he knew that long after his
人们依旧会记住他—他会在人们的口口相传中永垂青史 让我们
death, he would still be remembered – he would live on the lips of every person. Let’s
来尝试一些事情 我想让你现在立刻告诉我你的曾祖父母的名字
try something, I want you to tell me right off the top of your head the names of your
你知道吗?
great-grandparents. Do you know?
据估计 我们之中的大多数人最多能为人所记住75年
It has been estimated that the majority of us will be remembered for 75 years at most.
古希腊人称这位第二次死亡 因为人们会忘记他们的名字
The ancient Egyptians called this the second death, when their names would be forgotten.
但我们还是有应付这个的方法
But there are ways to certain about that.
众所周知 我不是一个好的艺术家 但是图画和摄像
Admittedly I am not a very good artist but what drawings, paintings and photographs do
能够捕捉某个特定时刻的你 而你定格的那一刻将会被永久保存 时间可能使
is capture you, you in that specific moment and they keep you there forever. Time can
画布变旧 但画布中的你将永远被定格在那一刻 不会随着岁月的消逝而变老
age the canvas but it can’t age you.
我们可以沿着公路向下到博物馆 去参观几千年前的油画和壁画
We could go to the museum down the road and look at paintings and murals from a thousand
虽然他们的遗体展现的是他们很久以前的样子 但他们的相貌
years ago. The physical bodies of the people represented long gone but their image, their
历史 他们是谁的那种感觉依旧存在
history, that feeling of who they were still remains.
从遗传学的角度来讲 我们都获得了永生 我们的基因能追溯到几百万年前
We all live forever, genetically. We could trace our genes back millions of years, and
而现在 我们的基因依旧得以延续 就像爱因斯坦所说的,“死亡不是终结
we continue to push our genetics forward. As Einstein said “Our death is not an end
如果我们的基因在孩子身上得以延续 那么他们就是我们;我们的身体就像是从树上掉下来的枯萎的叶子”
if we can live on in our children, for they are us; our bodies are only wilted leaves on the tree of life”
他们有什么感觉 以至于我们忘了去关注自身 当人们看着你的照片或图画时 他们
When people look at a photo or painting of you, what will
会说什么?你留下什么遗产呢?
they say? What legacy will you leave behind?
我怎样才能为人所铭记呢?
And how will I be remembered?
豪尔赫·路易斯·博尔赫斯在他的文字中写道:“除了人类之外 所有的生物都是不朽的 因为他们根本不在意
And words of Jorge Luis Borges, “Except for man, all creatures are immortal, for they are ignorant
死亡”
of death.”
然后 和往常一样 感谢你们的收看
And … as always … thanks for watching.
感谢节目播放时间和低俗怪谈 感谢他们让我的这段视频在
I’d like to thank Showtime and Penny Dreadful for allowing me to film on their incredible
他们的平台上播出 这段秀很令人惊奇 我一直是它的铁杆粉丝 我尤其要感谢
sets. The show really is amazing, I’ve been a huge fan of it. And I’d especially like
那些奇异的人 感谢你们帮我制作了这段可怕的视频
to thank these amazing peoples, there we are, thank you for making this awesome video with
感谢你们 呀
me. Thanks. Yaaaaaay.

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