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怎样在月球上造出适合人类的大气 – 译学馆
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怎样在月球上造出适合人类的大气

Could We Create A Livable Atmosphere On The Moon?

某种意义上我们正在毁灭可爱的地球
We’re kind of destroying our lovely earth.
那我们为什么不移民月球呢?
So can’t we just go to the moon?
改造月球!耶! 其实这也许并不是最佳选择
Terraform! Yeah! That’s probably not the best option.
大家好 今天的Dnews由喜爱月球的Amy为您带来
Hey guys, a moon loving Amy with you on dnews today.
来自推特的@a205kumar提了一个很好的问题
We got a great question on Twitter from @a205kumar,
他问为什么月球没有大气层?
he asked why our moon doesn’t have an atmosphere,
如果我们建造一个会怎么样?
and what would happen if we created one.
当我们设想一个物体拥有大气层
When we think of a body having an atmosphere,
我们一般都会想到地球这样的
we typically think of one like Earth,
舒适宜居的气体温室
a nice cozy envelope of life-giving gases
气压适宜我们生存繁衍
at pressures that keep us alive and well.
为了拥有这样的大气层或者任何其他大气层
To keep an atmosphere like that or any atmosphere,
一个行星必须具备几个条件
a planet needs a few things.
它要足够大以有足够的引力
It needs to be big enough to have enough gravity
来维持大气层
to hold on to that atmosphere,
需要某种抵抗太阳风的防护罩
and some kind of protection from the solar wind,
来保护大气层不被侵蚀掉
so it doesn’t get completely eroded away.
火星就是个典型例子
Mars is a great example.
这个行星的大气层逐渐稀薄
The planet lost its past thicker atmosphere,
就是因为它的引力太小无法维持这些气体
because it’s gravity is too weak to hold on to the gases,
它也没有磁场
and it doesn’t have a magnetic field.
太阳粒子形成的太阳风吹散了气体
Solar particles have ripped the gases away,
只在行星上留下现在的
leaving the planet with a tenuous layer
薄薄一层二氧化碳
of carbon dioxide it has today.
我们的月球比火星更小 引力也更小
Our moon is smaller than Mars and has even lower gravity.
它的地质结构不活跃
And it’s geologically inactive,
因此无条件产生磁场
so, has nothing to produce a magnetic field.
基本就没法产生大气层 对吧?
Basically arrest me for having no atmosphere, right?
实际上月球是有大气层的
Well, the moon actually does have an atmosphere,
这是已经证实的
it’s just super verified.
所以设计阿波罗登月舱的工程师
So much so that the engineers who design the Apollo lunar module
才能够完全忽略它
were able to completely ignore it.
更不用提当时他们并不知道它的存在
Not to mention they didn’t know it was a thing at the time,
但一切顺利
but it all worked out.
月球的大气层几乎算不上大气层
The moon’s atmosphere is barely considered an atmosphere,
也许可以称得上是外逸层
properly speaking it’s called an exosphere.
它比地球海平面附近的大气层
It’s some 100 trillion times less dense,
稀薄100兆倍
than the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level.
这几乎和国际空间站附近的
That’s about the equivalent density as the area in space,
大气密度相同
for the International Space Station orbits.
但它仍然存在
But still, it’s there.
有趣的是 太阳风会毁坏大气层
And interestingly the solar wind that destroys atmosphere
它却是月亮大气层的成因之一
is also one of the factors contributing to the moon’s.
月亮长期受太阳风的侵袭
The moon is constantly blasted
风的成分主要是粒子流
with a stream of particles from the Sun,
就像一把锉刀一样
that act as an abrasive,
把钠和钾原子从地表锉下
knocking sodium and potassium atoms off the surface
弥漫到外逸层
to populate the exosphere.
月球内部也持续的释放出一种气体
There is also gas constantly being released from the moon’s interior.
钾原子的衰变
The radioactive decay of potassium atoms
带来了外逸层的氩和氦
lead to exosphere argon and helium.
彗星和流星
More material is also released
则带来了更多的物质
after impacts of comets and meteoroids.
月球大气层的一部分成分仍然未知
There are still a lot of unknowns about the moon’s atmosphere.
但随着在月球的风化层中
But with the discovery of
也就是月球尘里发现了固化的水分子
water molecules trapped in the regolith, aka moon dust,
科学家怀疑外逸层可能扮演着
scientists suspect the exosphere might play a role in
潜在的月球水循环系统的角色
a potentially dynamic lunar water cycle,
将分子从两极区域搬运到低纬度地区
moving molecules between the polar regions and the lower latitudes.
至于在月球上制造大气层
As for creating an atmosphere on the moon,
嗯……这就有些难度了
well, that one’s a little trickier.
与月球没有大气层
The same conditions that have contributed to
的原因相同
the moon having no atmosphere,
这意味着即使我们制造出来也保持不住多久
means it’s unlikely to retain one we create for very long.
但我们能否制造出来呢?
But could we even create one?
将月球进行地球化改造会非常困难
It would be really hard terraforming the moon,
这并不只是建立殖民地或者住人的大型防护罩
not just building a colony or a bubble to live in,
而是改变月球让它能适应人类居住
but changing the moon’s so we can support human life,
这意味着要加入不稳定元素
would mean adding volatiles
例如氢 氮和碳
like hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon.
而唯一能够获取足量此类元素的地方
And the only place to get those elements in large enough quantities
就是太阳系深处的彗星
is in the distant regions of the solar system in the form of comets.
我们需要俘获这些彗星
We’d have to capture these comets,
将它们砸向月球
and smash them into the moon,
让其冰冻物质升华并进入大气层
allowing the frozen material to sublimate and populate the atmosphere.
这很可能会同时在
This would potentially liberate water
月球的风化层中生成水
in the lunar regolith at the same time.
自然产生出水元素
yielding natural bodies of water.
理想情况下这些冲击的动量
Ideally the momentum from these impacts
还会使月球自转略微加速
would also get the moon spinning faster,
这样生活在那里的人会有更自然的昼夜循环
so humans living there could have a more natural day/night cycle.
但这一切还是很复杂
but this is massively complicated,
远远超出了我们目前的科技水平
and way out of our current technological capabilities.
所以近期内还是不可能见到的
So it’s unlikely to be something we’ll see anytime soon.
或许未来某个时候吧?我是说今后某个世纪
By anytime soon? I mean any century soon.
但这不是说
But that doesn’t mean there aren’t reasons
我们不应该研究月球
for us to keep researching the moon.
因为从阿波罗的教训
Because the lessons learned from Apollo,
包括最初月球上
including the first ever indications of
大气层的迹象告诉我们
what makes up the moon’s atmosphere really taught us
还有许多秘密等待我们去探索
that there’s a lot more to learn.
如果你想要了解更多
If you want to learn more about
美国航天局实施的月球登陆计划
NASA’s moon landings on the go,
请收看《当我们离开地球》节目
check out the show When We Left Earth.
现在在《Discovery Go》软件中可以获得
You can get it now on the Discovery Go app.
进入你的应用商店或点击下方链接
Check your App Store or the link below
在视频简介里查看更多相关信息
in the description to find out more.
提到登陆月球
And speaking of going to the moon,
月球的无大气状态解释了
the moon’s none-atmosphere helps explain
为什么在阿波罗登月舱
why there’s no flame
飞离月球表面时没有火焰
when the Apollo Lunar Module is left the surface.
我在自己的频道Vintage Space中进行了详细解释
I explain the whole story over on my channel Vintage Space.
还有为什么我们只有一个月球?
And also why do we only have one moon?
我们也制作了专门的视频 就在这里
Well, we made a video about that too, right here.
月球或者其他方面还有什么秘密
So what other moon mysteries or just mysteries
让你们着迷呢?
keep you guys up at night?
请留言告诉我们
Let us know in the comments below.
一定要给本期视频点赞
Be sure to like this video.
别忘记关注我们
And don’t forget to subscribe
每天收看最新的Dnews内容
for a new episode of Dnews every single day.

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视频概述

改造月球,让它适宜我们人类居住,多么好的想法。这能够实现吗?如何在月球上制造出大气层呢?

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

AF

审核员

ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksvlHp--TgA

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