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我们可以建造一座木制摩天大楼吗?

Could we build a wooden skyscraper? - Stefan Al

Towering 85 meters above the Norwegian countryside,
高85m的Mjøstårnet耸立于挪威的乡村之上
Mjøstårnet cuts a sleek shape in the rural skyline.
勾勒出一道优美的天际线
Housing 18 stories of restaurants, apartments, and hotel rooms,
这座18层的现代建筑配有餐厅 公寓和酒店客房
this modern building might seem out of place.
看起来似乎有些格格不入
But a deeper look reveals it actually blends in quite well among the forested farmlands.
但仔细观察就会发现 它实际上很好地融入了森林农田
This is likely because Mjøstårnet is the world’s tallest wooden building,
这或许是因为Mjøstårnet是世界上最高的木质建筑
made almost entirely from the trees of neighboring forests.
它几乎全部取材于周边森林
Until the end of the 20th century,
直到20世纪末
engineers thought it was impossible
工程师们都认为
to build a wooden building over six stories tall.
建造六层以上的木质建筑是不可能的
Traditional boards of lumber were fairly strong
当受力方向与纤维生长方向平行时
against forces parallel to the wood’s fiber growth.
传统的木板非常坚固
But they were vulnerable to forces applied perpendicular to this direction.
但当受到垂直方向的力时 木板很容易折断
As a result, wood lacked steel’s tensile strength
所以 木材缺少钢铁的抗拉强度
or concrete’s compressive strength
或混凝土的抗压强度
each necessary to support tall buildings
二者都是支撑高层建筑
and battle the powerful winds found at high altitudes.
和抵御高海拔地区强风所必需的
But the early 1890s saw the invention of glue laminated timber, or glulam.
但在19世纪90年代早期 胶合板问世了
And a century later,
一个世纪后
engineers developed cross-laminated timber, or CLT.
工程师们发明了正交胶合木(CLT)
These new wooden materials start out like all other lumber
这些新的木材开始的制造方法其他木材一样
a freshly cut log is sawed into smooth uniform boards of wood.
刚砍下的原木被锯成光滑均匀的木板
Then, in the case of CLT,
然后 是CLT的话
the boards are glued together in alternating orientations
木板以交替的方向粘在一起
with each layer set at 90 degrees to its neighbors.
相邻层按90度交叉排列
The resulting material benefits from wood’s structural rigidity in every direction,
利用了木材在各个方向的结构刚性
allowing it to mimic the compressive strength of concrete
由此生产的材料拥有类似混凝土的抗压强度
and bear loads up to 20 times heavier than traditional lumber.
其承重力是传统木材的20倍
Glulam on the other hand, glues boards together in the same direction,
胶合木则是将木板按相同的方向粘合在一起
forming massive beams with tensile strength comparable to steel.
形成的木质大梁的抗拉强度可与钢铁相媲美
Glulam isn’t as versatile as CLT,
胶合板虽然没有CLT用途广
but its incredible strength along one direction
但它在一个方向上有着惊人的强度
makes it superior for load-bearing beams and columns.
更适合用作承重梁和承重柱
These engineered forms of wood could finally compete with traditional materials
这些工程形式的木材除了可以和传统木材竞争之外
while also bringing their own unique set of advantages.
还具有自身的独特优势
At one-fifth the weight of concrete,
CLT的重量只有混凝土的五分之一
building with CLT
采用CLT建造
requires smaller cranes, smaller foundations, and fewer construction workers.
只需要更小的起重机 更小的地基和更少的建筑工人
While concrete has to undergo a time-intensive process of casting and curing in a mold,
混凝土需要在模具中进行长时间的浇铸和固化
timber can be shaped quickly using computer directed cutting machines.
而木材能够通过数控切割机快速成型
And where concrete requires certain weather and timing conditions to be poured on site,
混凝土的现场浇铸需要特定的天气和时间条件
engineered wood can be prefabricated in a factory,
而工程木材可以在工厂预制
creating standardized parts with clear instructions for assembly.
生产出配有清晰装配说明的标准化部件
Taken together, these materials allow for faster and quieter construction,
总的来说 这些材料生产速度更快 噪音更低
with more biodegradable materials and less waste.
使用更多的可生物降解材料 浪费更少
Once constructed, CLT and glulam buildings
一旦建成 CLT和胶合木建筑
are also more resilient to some natural disasters.
能够更好地抵御一些自然灾害
An earthquake can crack concrete,
地震会使混凝土开裂
permanently weakening an entire structure.
弱化建筑的结构 且无法修复
But cracked wood panels can be easily replaced.
但是开裂的木板更换很容易
The same is true for fire safety.
发生火灾时也是如此
As temperatures rise in a CLT building,
随着CLT建筑内温度升高
the material’s outer layer will char,
木材外层会被烧焦
insulating the inner layers for up to three hours.
但要烧到内层还需要三个小时
This is more than enough time to evacuate most buildings,
这段时间足够多数建筑疏散人群
and once the smoke has settled, charred panels can be swapped out—
一旦烟雾消散 就可以换掉烧焦的木板
unlike melted steel beams.
而融化的钢梁则不能被换掉
But perhaps the biggest benefits of CLT and glulam
但也许CLT和胶合木最大的好处
are outside the construction site.
是在建筑工地之外
Building construction is responsible for 11% of annual global carbon emissions,
建筑施工每年产生的碳排放占全球的11%
and the production of steel, concrete, iron, and glass
生产铁 混凝土 钢和玻璃
are major contributors to that figure.
是造成这一结果的主要原因
Timber, however, is a renewable resource that can be made carbon-neutral
但是 木材是一种可再生资源
if trees are planted to replace those cut down.
如果多种树 少砍伐 就有望实现碳中和
Wood also has low thermal conductivity,
木材的导热性也很低
making it easier to heat and cool buildings with less energy waste.
可以使用更少的能源给建筑供暖和制冷
Despite these advantages,
除了这些优点之外
CLT requires vastly more lumber than traditional wooden construction.
CLT比传统木质结构需要更多木材
And when compared in similar quantities,
当数量相近时
neither CLT or glulam is as strong as steel or concrete.
CLT和胶合木都没有钢和混凝土那么坚固
Even Mjøstårnet isn’t made entirely of wood,
甚至连Mjøstårnet也不是完全由木材制成的
as it contains concrete slabs to reinforce the upper floors.
因为它用了混凝土板来加固上部楼层
Taken together, it’s unlikely that a purely wooden structure
总的来说 一个纯全木质结构
would be strong enough to support a 40-story building
不太可能有足够的强度支撑40层楼高的建筑
the minimum height for a formal skyscraper.
40层是常规的摩天大楼的最低高度
But even if only buildings under 30 stories were built from wood,
但即使只有30层以下的楼层是由木头建造的
it would reduce the carbon footprint of those structures by more than 25%.
这些建筑的碳足迹也会减少25%以上
So no matter how tall these wooden buildings rise,
所以不管木质建筑有多高
each one contributes to the health of our concrete jungles.
每一个都有助于城市的健康发展
Speaking of concrete,
说到混凝土
what if cracked concrete could fix itself,
如果混凝土能自我修复
this revolutionary technology could save resources and lives.
这项变革性技术可以节省资源 保护生命
learn what the secret ingredient is with this video.
在本视频中寻找秘方吧

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视频概述

介绍挪威的一座木质摩天大楼

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_vPKqVg1eA

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