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这个世界会被黑洞吞噬吗? – 译学馆
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这个世界会被黑洞吞噬吗?

Could the Earth be swallowed by a black hole? - Fabio Pacucci

从能够毁灭所有物种的小行星
From asteroids capableof destroying entire species,
到伽玛射线爆发和能终结地球生命的超新星
to gamma-ray bursts and supernovaethat could exterminate life on Earth,
太空不缺少能在我们小小星球
outer space has no shortage of forces that could wreak havoc
造成大破坏的力量
on our tiny planet.
但看起来太空中存在比这些更恐怖的物质——
But there’s something in space that seems more terrifying than any of these –
一些可以消灭靠近它的所有东西的物质
something that wipes outeverything it comes near.
地球会被黑洞吞噬吗?
Could the Earthbe swallowed by a black hole?
黑洞是一种密度极大的物质
A black hole is an object so dense
其附近的空间和时间会不可避免地被改变
that space and time around itare inescapably modified,
弯曲成一个无限大的凹陷
warped into an infinite sink. Nothing,
任何物质 即使是光 跑的再快
not even light,can move fast enough
也逃脱不了黑洞的万有引力
to escape a black hole’sgravitational pull
一旦物质超过一定的界限
once it passes a certain boundary,
这种物质被称为视界
known as the event horizon. Thus,
因此 黑洞
a black hole is
就像个拥有无限能力的宇宙空间的清洁工
like a cosmic vacuum cleaner with infinite capacity,
在其路径上 吞噬所有物质 并且 只进不出
gobbling up everything in its path,and letting nothing out.
判断黑洞是否能吞噬地球
To determine whether a black holecould swallow the Earth,
我们首先必须弄清楚它们在哪儿
we first have to figure outwhere they are.
但是由于它们不发射光线 又怎样了解它们呢?
But since they don’t emit light,how’s that possible? Fortunately,
幸运的是 我们有能力观察到它们
we’re able to observe their effect
对其附近空间的影响
on the space around them.
当物质靠近黑洞时
When matter approaches a black hole,
巨大的引力场加快物质的运动速度
the immense gravitational fieldaccelerates it to high speed.
这就会发射大量的光束
This emits an enormous amount of light.
对于那些过于遥远而不能被吸入的物体
And for objects too far awayto be sucked in,
巨大的地心引力仍然会影响它们的轨道
the massive gravitational forcestill affects their orbits.
如果我们观察到几颗恒星绕着明显的空点轨道运行
If we observe several stars orbitingaround an apparently empty point,
黑洞可能正在“领舞”
a black hole could be leading the dance. Similarly,
相似地 足够近地传递到视界的光线
light that passesclose enough to an event horizon
会在一个被称为引力透镜的现象里被反射
will be deflected in a phenomenonknown as gravitational lensing.
我们发现的大多数黑洞
Most of the black holes
可以分为两种主要类型
that we’ve found can be thought of as two main types.
小一些的 叫做恒星质量黑洞
The smaller ones,called stellar mass black holes,
拥有大于太阳质量100倍的质量
have a mass up to 100 times larger than that of our sun.
当一颗巨大恒星消耗掉所有的核燃料 它们就会形成
They’re formed when a massive starconsumes all its nuclear fuel
它的核心会崩塌
and its core collapses.
我们已经观察了
We’ve observed several
3000光年远的物体中的几个
of these objects as close as 3000 light-years away,
仅在银河系 就可能存在有
and there could be up to 100 millionsmall black holes
超过一亿个小黑洞
just in the Milky Way galaxy.
那么 我们该担心的?
So should we be worried?
大可不必
Probably not.
除了它们巨大的质量之外
Despite their large mass,
恒星黑洞只有一个
stellar black holes only have a radius
大约30万米或更短的半径
of around 300 kilometers or less,
从而使其与地球产生直接撞击的几率变小
making the chancesof a direct hit with us miniscule.
尽管因为它们的引力场
Although becausetheir gravitational fields
能从远距离影响一颗行星
can affect a planet from a large distance,
即使没有直接撞击 它们也很危险
they could be dangerouseven without a direct collision.
如果一个典型的类恒星质量黑洞
If a typical stellar-mass black hole
准备经过海王星范围
were to pass in the region of Neptune,
地球的轨道将会被很大限度的改变
the orbit of the Earthwould be considerably modified,
同时会带来可怕的后果
with dire results. Still,
尽管如此
the combination
它们如此小的质量与星系的浩渺相结合
of how small they are and how vast the galaxy is
就意味着恒星黑洞不会给我们带来多少烦忧
means that stellar black holes don’t give us much to worry about.
但是我们仍然必须面对第二种类型:
But we still have to meet the second type:
特大质量黑洞
supermassive black holes.
它们有比太阳质量大
These have masses millions or billions times greater
数百万或数十亿倍的质量
than that of our sun
拥有跨越数以亿千米的视界
and have event horizons thatcould span billions of kilometers.
通过吞噬物质以及与其他黑洞相融合
These giants have grownto immense proportions
这些“巨人”早已长的硕大无朋
by swallowing matterand merging with other black holes.
不像它们的恒星亲戚 超大质量黑洞并不会在空间里游荡
Unlike their stellar cousins, supermassive black holes aren’twandering through space. Instead,
相反 它们坐落于包括我们自己的星系的中心
they lie at the centerof galaxies, including our own.
太阳系位于环绕银河系中心的
Our solar system is in a stable orbit
超大质量黑洞的
around a supermassive black hole
一个稳定的轨道中
that residesat the center of the Milky Way,
安全距离为25000光年
at a safe distance of 25,000 light-years.
但是这会变化
But that could change.
如果我们的星系与其他星系发生碰撞
If our galaxy collides with another,
地球会被投向银河系中心
the Earth could be thrown towardsthe galactic center,
非常靠近超大质量黑洞
close enoughto the supermassive black hole
以至于最终被吞噬
to be eventually swallowed up.
事实上 与仙女座星系的碰撞
In fact, a collisionwith the Andromeda Galaxy
被预测会发生于距今4百万年后
is predicted to happen4 billion years from now,
对于地球来说 这可能不是一个好消息
which may not be great newsfor our home planet.
但在我们把问题想的太过严峻之前
But before we judge them too harshly,
黑洞不只是破坏的引子
black holes aren’t simply agentsof destruction.
它们在星系的形成上扮演着决定性的角色
They played a crucial rolein the formation of galaxies,
是组成宇宙的积木
the building blocks of our universe.
在宇宙这部戏剧里 黑洞不代表暗黑的角色
Far from being shadowy charactersin the cosmic play,
它们在使宇宙成为
black holes have fundamentally contributed
明亮而惊人的地方上做出了根本性的贡献
in making the universea bright and astonishing place.

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视频概述

黑洞的定义 类型 以及对其他行星的影响

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e9TLbZuvsko

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