ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

复杂生命能在火星上生存吗 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

复杂生命能在火星上生存吗

Could Complex Life Survive on Mars? | SciShow News

开场音乐
[ ♪ Intro ]
在过去的几年里
We’ve added a lot to the classic picture
我们已经为火星的经典图片增加了很多内容
of Mars in the last few years,
特别是在水的分布问题上
especially where water is concerned.
在强有力的关于散布在火星地表上
Between the pretty strong evidence
含有盐分的液态水的证据之间
of salty liquid water scattered across the surface,
更不要提在南极有可能
not to mention the giant lake that might be hidden deep
被深藏的巨湖
under the south pole,
看来好像在那里有数量惊人的液体水
it seems like there’s a surprising amount of liquid water over there.
还有这周在《自然地球科学》上发表的一篇论文里
And in a paper published this week in Nature Geoscience,
研究人员发现那里的所有水
researchers found that all this water we ’
其实可能包含足够的
ve been finding might actually contain enough oxygen
适合某些生命形式生存的氧气
for certain forms of life to survive there.
不仅仅是简单的单细胞的微生物
Not just simple unicellular microbes, either.
在某些地方 有可能有足够的
In some places, there might even be enough oxygen
适合更复杂生命体生存的氧气
for more complex life to survive.
所以水对于
So water is super important to the search
在其他世界寻找生命是极其重要的
for life on other worlds,
因为据我们所知 生命离不开它
because as far as we know, life can’t survive without it.
但是当然了
But of course, there’s a big difference
弄清火星上生命是否可以生存
between figuring out whether life could survive on Mars
和事实上在那里找到生命之间有很大的不同
and actually finding life there.
而且即使有了液态水存在的证据
And even with the evidence of liquid water,
我们现在也仍然在研究第一个问题
we’re still working on that first one.
这个主要的问题就是火星上的水
The main problem is that the water on Mars is full
充满了一种名叫高氯酸盐的盐
of a type of salt called perchlorates,
据我们所知那对生命而言毒性很强
which happen to be pretty toxic to life as we know it.
但是我们知道生命可以适应所有的极端情况
But we know that life can adapt to all kinds of extreme conditions.
而且当我们和这个新论文的作者之一
And when we talked to Vlada Stamenković,
弗拉达·斯特门科威克谈话时
one of the authors on the new paper,
他在一个地方提到
he noted in a place
像火星这样一个到处都有高氯酸盐的地方
like Mars where there are perchlorates everywhere,
适应它们或许恰好很平常
adapting to them might just be normal. Still,
尽管如此 当科学家谈到在火星上生存的生命的时候
when scientists talk about life survivingon Mars,
他们总是会谈及厌氧生命
they’re pretty much always referring to anaerobic life, simple,
简单一点的单细胞生物不需要氧气生存
unicellular lifethat doesn’t need oxygen to survive.
更为复杂的耗氧生物确实需要氧气
More complex, aerobic life does require oxygen,
但是由于在火星上没有多少氧气
and since there’s not much of it on Mars,
大多数研究人员就认为需氧生命不能在那里生存
most researchers assumed aerobic life wouldn’tbe able to survive there.
至少 直到现在
At least, until now.
最近的其他的一些研究已经发现
Other recent studies have found
需氧生命在水中并不需要
that aerobic life doesn’t need quite as much dissolved oxygen to survive
我们之前所认为的那么多溶解氧去生存
in water as we used to think,
单细胞生物只需要十亿分之零点零三二
only 0.032 parts per billion for single-celled microbes,
也就是说并不是很多
which is … not a lot.
比较一下 地球上海洋所含的氧气大概是那些单细胞生物所需氧气的二十万倍
For comparison, oceans on Earth have about200 thousand times that.
所以这周论文的作者们
So the authors of this week’s
想看看火星的盐水里的氧气容量将是否
paper wanted to see if the oxygen content of Martian brines
可以足够支持需氧生物生存
would be enough to support aerobic life.
他们根据火星上的条件 建立了
When they put together a model of how oxygen would dissolve
一个氧气在盐水中溶解的模型
in the brine based on the conditions on Mars,
他们发现曾经在这个星球上有一片很大的区域
they found that there were largeareas of the planet
在那里盐水会有足够的氧气来支持需氧生命生存
where the brine would have enough oxygen to support aerobic life.
而且大概占地表的百分之七
And on about 7 % of the surface,
这个模型展现了有可能有足够的氧气
the model showed that there might even be enough oxygen
去支持更复杂的多细胞生物生存 像海绵动物
to support more complex, multicellular life,like sponges,
它们需要的氧气大概是单细胞生物所需的两千倍
which need about 2000 times as much as single-celled aerobic life.
研究人员聚焦于
The researchers focused
接近于火星地表的小型海水沉积物
on the small brine deposits close to the Martian surface,
而不是我们所想的
not the giant lake we think might exist about a kilometer and a half
可能存在于火星南极地下的大概一千五百米处的巨湖
below the planet’s south pole.
但是根据他们的调查结果
But they said that according to their results,
这个湖可能也会有大量的溶解氧
the lake would probably have lots of dissolved oxygen, too,
只要它有所需东西的可靠的水源
as long as it has a reliable source of the stuff,
像来自于大气层
like from the atmosphere
或者来自于放射物分解的水分子
or from radiation breaking down water molecules. Obviously,
显然 这个并不意味着火星上有需氧生命
none of this means there is aerobic life on Mars,
或者那种生命根本不存在
or that life exists there at all.
但是斯特门科威克也指出氧气是
But Stamenković also pointed out that oxygen was a huge factor
地球上复杂生命体进化的一大因素
in the evolution of complex life on Earth.
所以找到足够的氧气去支持需氧生命生存离成功也就近了一步
So finding enough oxygen to support aerobiclife right next door
对于揭示在火星上找寻生命有了新的可能性
opens up a lot of new possibilities in the search for life on Mars,
同时或许也适用于其他的宇宙世界
and maybe on other worlds, too. Meanwhile,
美国火星局的探索号火星探测器正在去火星的路上
NASA’s InSight lander is on its way to Mars,
将于十一月底抵达
set to touch down in late November.
它不是被设计成研究火星上的
It’s not designed to study places
我们认为可能有生命存在的区域
where we think life might be able to survive,
因为很难确保
since it’s so hard to make sure we
我们不会用从地球上来的微生物旅行者污染这些地方
don’t contaminate those places with microbial hitchhikers from Earth. Instead,
探索号正准备去研究
InSight is going to study the planet
这个星球的本质从而学习更多的关于
’ s interior to learn more about how rocky
多岩石的星球如何在太阳系中成形的
planets formed in the Solar System.
在上周 美国火星局发布了一个视频
And last week, NASA released a video
更多的细节是关于探索号将怎样工作
with more details about how exactly that will work.
它包括……机器爪……
It involves … the claw…
我真的做好关于那个的工作了吗
Did I do a good job of that? Seriously,
足够严肃了
though.
因为探索者号的使命是去研究火星的本质
Since InSight’s mission is to study the Martian interior,
我们之前也从来没正确地做过
which we’ve never properly done before,
它的科学的仪器需要和地表有直接的接触
its scientific instruments need to be in direct contact with the surface.
所以探索者号的机器臂末端绑定了一个钳子
So the lander’s robotic arm has a claw attached to the end
它将用来捡起那些工具
that it will use to pick up those instruments
然后把它们放到地上
and place them on the ground.
换句话说
In other words,
我们发射的去往另一个星球的这个高级复杂的机器人探索号
the highly-sophisticated robotic lander we’re sending to another planet is
基本来说是一个满载荣耀的钳形机器
basically a glorified claw machine.
但是不像在游乐场里抓娃娃机
Unlike the machines you dump money into atthe arcade, though,
探索者号的机械装置事实上是被设计来捡东西的
the lander’s mechanism is designed to actually pick things up.
任务小组考虑了一些其他选择
The mission team considered a few other options,
但是那些方案都有一些问题
but there were problems with all of them.
比如一块磁铁
A magnet, for example,
如果太多灰尘进去就可能让它不工作
might not work if too much dust got in the way.
这事实上是工程学里相当酷的一件事了
It’s actually a pretty cool bit of engineering,
通过加热蜡状物可以让机器开启
the mechanism opens up by heating up wax,
然后给一根轴棍施加压力 让钳子张开
which then expands, putting pressure on a rod that opens the claw.
然后将张开的钳子放在任何你想移动的仪器工具上
Then you just lower the open claw onto whatever instrument you want to move.
它们都有钩子方便钳子去抓起
They all have hooks for the claw to grab onto.
当蜡状物冷却
When the wax cools,
一个弹簧把棒子推回原来的地方 关闭钳子
a spring pushes the rod back into place, closing the claw.
一旦它恢复原状
And once it’s in place,
它将总是保持关闭状态 即使仪器工具推它
it will stay closed even with the instrument pulling down on it,
不像在游乐场的那些钳子机器
unlike the claws in arcade machines,
它们被设计成有东西推它们它们就会开启
which are designed to open when something pulls down on them.
所以如果探索号碰巧发现
So if InSight happens to find any little
任何小的三眼绿色外星人在火星上等着它
three-eyed green aliens waiting for it on Mars,
它们也不可能开启
they won’t stand a chance.
感谢观看科学秀的太空新闻环节
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowSpace News!
尤其感谢我们太空福克斯利公司的众筹平台主席
And thanks especially to our Patreon President of Space SR Foxley
和为支持我们所做的众筹团体
and our community on Patreon for supporting what we do.
你可能已经看到我们这周早些时候的公益表演
You might have seen our livestream extravaganza earlier this week,
在那里我们进行了一些有趣的实验
where we tested some fun experiments,
做了一个转播的测验节目
did a live quiz show,
也非常努力把一个南瓜弄爆
and tried very hard to blow up a pumpkin.
但是更重要的是
But most importantly,
我们和分享我们热情的人们联系到了一起
we got to connect with people who share our passion
为了传播科学文化知识给那些想学的人
for spreading scientific knowledge to anyone who wants to learn.
没有你们的帮助我们没办法去做这件事
We wouldn’t be able to do this without yourhelp.
如果你还不是一个赞助者而且你想了解更多的话
If you’re not yet a patron and want to know more,
只要点击我们的网址就行了
just check out patreon.com/scishow.
结尾音乐
[ ♪ Outro ]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

在火星上复杂生命是否有可能生存

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Alby

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dg3dIhevnhU

相关推荐