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呼吸检测仪能检测出癌症吗?

Could a breathalyzer detect cancer? - Julian Burschka

难题之一是如何在感觉健康时就能检测出疾病 ——霍萨姆·海克
How is it that a breathalyzer can measure the alcohol content in someone’s blood,
酒精呼吸检测仪如何仅凭呼吸
hours after they had their last drink, based on their breath alone?
在酒后几小时就能检测出血液中的酒精含量呢?
Exhaled breath contains trace amounts of hundreds,
呼气中含有微量的
even thousands, of volatile organic compounds:
数百甚至数千种挥发性有机化合物:
small molecules lightweight enough to travel easily as gases.
轻到可以像气体一样随意移动的小分子
One of these is ethanol,
其中一种有机化合物是乙醇
which we consume in alcoholic drinks.
我们喝的酒精饮品中就有
It travels through the bloodstream to tiny air sacs in the lungs,
乙醇通过血流到达肺部小气囊
passing into exhaled air
进入呼出的气体
at a concentration 2,000 times lower, on average, than in the blood.
其在呼气中的平均浓度比血液中的低二千倍
When someone breathes into a breathalyzer,
当人向酒精呼吸检测仪呼气
the ethanol in their breath passes into a reaction chamber.
呼出的乙醇进入一个反应室
There, it’s converted to another molecule, called acetic acid,
在这里 它被转化为另一种分子——醋酸
in a special type of reactor that produces an electric current during the reaction.
在反应过程中 特殊的反应器会产生电流
The strength of the current indicates the amount of ethanol in the sample of air,
电流的强度反映了气体中的乙醇量
and by extension in the blood.
扩展而言就是血液中的乙醇量
In addition to the volatile organic compounds like ethanol we consume in food and drink,
除从食物和饮料中获取挥发性有机化合物 比如乙醇
the biochemical processes of our cells produce many others.
人体细胞的生化过程也产生其他挥发性有机化合物
And when something disrupts those processes, like a disease,
当疾病等因素破坏了这一过程时
the collection of volatile organic compounds in the breath may change, too.
呼气中的挥发性有机化合物混合物也可能发生变化
So could we detect disease by analyzing a person’s breath,
所以 在不使用像活检 抽血和放射学检查等
without using more invasive diagnostic tools
更具入侵性的诊断工具的情况下
like biopsies, blood draws, and radiation?
我们能否通过呼吸来检测疾病?
In theory, yes,
理论上是可以的
but testing for disease is a lot more complicated than testing for alcohol.
但与检测酒精相比 检测疾病复杂很多
To identify diseases,
为了鉴定疾病
researchers need to look at a set of tens of compounds in the breath.
研究人员们需要了解呼气中的几十种化合物
A given disease may cause some of these compounds
某种特定疾病可能使
to increase or decrease in concentration,
有些化合物的浓度增加或减少
while others may not change—
而其他化合物的浓度则可能不变
the profile is likely to be different for every disease,
每种疾病呈现的情况都可能不同
and could even vary for different stages of the same disease.
甚至同一疾病的不同阶段都可能不同
For example,
例如
cancers are among the most researched candidates
在通过呼吸诊断疾病的研究中
for diagnosis through breath analysis.
癌症是被研究得最多的
One of the biochemical changes many tumors cause
许多肿瘤引起的生化变化之一
is a large increase in an energy-generating process called glycolysis.
是糖酵解这一能量产生过程的大幅增加
Known as the Warburg Effect,
称瓦布格效应
this increase in glycolysis results in an increase of metabolites like lactate
糖酵解的增多会导致乳酸等代谢物的增加
which in turn can affect a whole cascade of metabolic processes
继而又会影响一系列代谢过程
and ultimately result in altered breath composition,
最终导致呼出气体成分改变
possibly including an increased concentration of volatile compounds
可能包括挥发性化合物浓度增加
such as dimethyl sulfide.
比如 二甲硫醚浓度的增加
But the Warburg Effect is just one potential indicator of cancerous activity,
但瓦布格效应只是癌变活动的一个潜在指标
and doesn’t reveal anything about the particular type of cancer.
而且它不能揭示出癌症的种类
Many more indicators are needed to make a diagnosis.
诊断癌症还需要更多指标
To find these subtle differences,
为了找出这其中细微的差别
researchers compare the breath of healthy people
研究人员运用基于数百呼吸样本的数据模型
with the breath of people who suffer from a particular disease
将健康人的呼吸
using profiles based on hundreds of breath samples.
与有某种疾病的人的呼吸相比较
This complex analysis requires a fundamentally different,
这种复杂分析所需要的传感器
more versatile type of sensor from the alcohol breathalyzer.
与酒精测试仪的传感器差别巨大 需有更多功能
There are a few being developed.
有一些传感器正在开发中
Some discriminate between individual compounds
一些传感器通过观察化合物在电场中的运动
by observing how the compounds move through a set of electric fields.
来区分不同的化合物
Others use an array of resistors made of different materials
另一些传感器用不同材料制成的电阻器阵列来区分
that each change their resistance
当传感器暴露于挥发性有机化合物的特定混合物时
when exposed to a certain mix of volatile organic compounds.
传感器的每个电阻器都会改变其电阻
There are other challenges too.
呼吸诊断疾病还面临其他挑战
These substances are present at incredibly low concentrations
这些物质的浓度极低
— typically just parts per billion,
通常仅为十亿分之一
much lower than ethanol concentrations in the breath.
远低于呼吸中的乙醇浓度
Compounds’ levels may be affected by factors other than disease,
化合物浓度除了受到疾病的影响外
including age, gender, nutrition, and lifestyle.
还受到年龄 性别 营养和生活方式的影响
Finally, there’s the issue of distinguishing
最后 还有一个问题是要区分
which compounds in the sample were produced in the patient’s body
样品中哪些化合物是在患者体内产生的
and which were inhaled from the environment shortly before the test.
哪些是在测试前不久从环境中吸入的
Because of these challenges,
由于这些挑战
breath analysis isn’t quite ready yet.
呼吸分析检测法还不成熟
But preliminary clinical trials on lung, colon, and other cancers
但是对肺癌 结肠癌和其他癌症的
have had encouraging results.
初步临床试验已经取得了振奋人心的结果
One day catching cancer early might be as easy as breathing in and out
总有一天 简单一呼一吸就能实现癌症早发现
A breathalyzer isn’t the only new technology in the fight against cancer.
呼吸检测器并不是抗击癌症的唯一新技术
check out this video about emerging science of BIO hacking
观看有关生物黑客新兴科学的视频
where biologists hack a patients’ genetic code
生物学家劫持了患者的遗传密码
to reprogram their immune system
对其免疫系统进行重新编程

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视频概述

通过酒精检测仪引出全文主题线,探讨呼吸检测仪早期诊断疾病的可行性

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNFscrBEhR0

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