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合作与进化 – 译学馆
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合作与进化

Cooperation and evolution

ENDOSYMBOISIS COOPERATION+EVOLUTION
《共生》 合作+进化
RL: There is fantastic, rich complexity in the world around us.
我们四周的世界有着美妙而丰富的复杂性
But the beauty and the cruelty of existence
但我们并非总能独自应对
is not something we can always handle alone.
生存的美丽与残酷
That struggle to survive extends beyond humans
生存斗争不仅限于人类
and includes all life on the planet,
地球上的一切生命都参与其中
There are seemingly endless menagerie of creatures
似乎有无穷无尽的生物
live, compete, and sometimes help one another
在地球上繁衍生息 它们生活 竞争
as they populate the Earth.
有时也会互帮互助
Even the very smallest are an important part of this web of life.
连最小的生物也是生物圈的重要组成部分
But how did this come to be?
但这个过程是怎样发生的呢?
For us to find out, let’s go back to a time of ancient competition
为了找到答案 让我们重返远古竞争的时代
and see how a simple prokaryotic cell
看看仅由细胞膜 核酸和蛋白质
no more than a membrane, nucleic acids, and proteins–
组成的简单原核细胞
evolved a remarkably beneficial relationship
是如何进化出一种惊人的利益关系
to help it thrive.
来帮助自身繁衍的
Billions of years ago,
数十亿年前
these early cells lived in rich waters,
这些原始细胞生活在富含营养的水域
searching for energy.
寻觅着能量
Some cells consumed energy from molecules directly.
一些细胞直接从分子中获取能量
Some of those cells became energy sources for others,
这些细胞有的变为其他细胞的能量来源
while still others cells evolved the ability
还有些细胞进化出了
to use sunlight to split water molecules as an energy source.
利用阳光分解水分子获取能量的能力
But the pure oxygen released in this reaction
然而这一反应释放出的纯净氧气
changed the very atmosphere of the planet
改变了地球的大气环境
and likely harmed other prokaryotic.
并可能有害于其他原核生物
Many didn’t survive.
不少原核生物因此灭绝了
But what’s this?
可这是什么?
Here is a cell that evolved to use oxygen as a powerful energy source,
这个细胞经过进化 能用氧气作强大能源
allowing it to thrive in this new oxygen-rich environment.
得以在这个富氧的新环境中繁衍壮大
But the cell still competed for survival
但这个细胞仍要在一个危险的世界中
in a dangerous world.
为生存而竞争
Then something remarkable happened.
接下来的事情非同凡响
A larger cell engulfed our little oxygen-using cell.
一个更大的细胞吞掉了我们的小耗氧细胞
But this time, the little cell survived inside its host.
但这回 小细胞在宿主内活了下来
Now the smaller cell could harness energy from oxygen,
现在小细胞仍然可以利用氧气获取能量
but this time from the safety of its new home–
但现在有了新家的庇护
even more energy than it needed,
它能获取比自身所需更多的能量
allowing it to share energy with the larger host cell.
这样一来 它能和更大的宿主细胞共享能量
In return, the host cell provided nutrients
作为回报 宿主细胞为它提供营养
and safety from predators.
并保护它不受掠食者攻击
This relationship was simply too good to end.
这种无与伦比的关系一直持续了下去
Over generations,
许多代之后
the two cells descendants exchanged DNA
这两个细胞的后代交换了DNA
and became dependent on each other for survival,
彼此依赖以求生存
living as one organism in an evolutionary process
并以一个有机体的形式存在着
called endosymbiosis.
这一进化过程叫作共生
This mutually-beneficial relationship only deepened over time,
这种互利关系随着时间的推移而加深
allowing the evolution of what we know today as the eukaryote,
从而进化出了我们今天所知的真核细胞
with a true nucleus and organelles
真核细胞拥有具备特定功能的
that complete specialized tasks.
细胞核和细胞器
And what about that little oxygen-consuming cell?
那这个耗氧的小细胞结果如何呢?
It evolved into the mitochondrion,
它进化成了线粒体
which still harnesses most of the energy in eukaryotic cells.
仍然在真核细胞中负责获取绝大多数能量
In your own body right now,
就在此刻 你的体内
a mitochondrion can maintain an electric field
一个线粒体在内外膜的带电夹层中
across its membrane of 30 million volts per meter,
能维持每米3000万伏的电压
a potential that is equal to the energy released
这个电压量相当于天空中一次闪电
by a bolt of in the sky.
所释放的能量
This energy supported the evolution of even more structures
这一能量支持了更多细胞结构发生进化
in more diverse combinations,
细胞们变化着 彼此叠加着
changing and building on one another over time.
久而久之 拥有了更加多样化的组合方式
All of the varied multicellular life on earth
地球上一切形形色色的多细胞生物
derives from that cooperative relationship in our ancient past.
都源自远古时代的这场合作关系
Had it not been for this chance relationship so long ago,
若不是很久以前这一偶然建立的关系
life on Earth wouldn’t exist as it does today.
如今地球上的生命就不会存在了
It all began with cells evolving
这一切都是从细胞不断进化
to cooperate and create
学会合作并为生命创造新可能
new possibilities for life.
开始的

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视频概述

生物世界的合作与进化

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxZN3KYEZjk

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