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保护我们壮观的脆弱的珊瑚礁

Conserving our spectacular, vulnerable coral reefs - Joshua Drew

珊瑚礁是这星球上最令人惊叹的
Coral reefs are some of the most spectacular ecosystems
生态系统之一
on the planet.
它们也是最脆弱之一
They’re also some of the most vulnerable.
但我们应该如何去保护这些礁体
But how can we protect the reefs
和依靠礁体存活的动植物?
and the animals and plants who rely on them?
又应如何确保
And how can we make sure
我们这些保护区不会伤害到那些依靠珊瑚礁生存的人们
our protected areas aren’t hurting those people who use reefs to survive?
这些都属于
These are some of the big questions
海洋生物学家现今要面临的大问题之一
facing marine conservation biologists today.
就拿斐济来说
Let’s take Fiji, for example.
斐济由南太平洋的众多岛屿组成
Fiji is series of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
为了平衡环境的保护和人们的谋生需求
To help balance the need for conservation and making a living,
科学家们建议 不采用大的养殖场
scientists had suggested that instead of one big park
为的是提供大量的覆盖保护给一个珊瑚礁系统
which provides a lot of coverage for one reef system
而留下剩下的不受保护的珊瑚礁系统
while leaving the rest unprotected,
取而代之更好的办法是 创造一种
a better way is to create a system of protected areas
像绳子上的珍珠嵌套在一起的保护系统
nested together like pearls on a string.
这个理念称为“景观连接度”
This idea is called connectivity.
这样一来 科学家们就可以保护众多不同的栖息地
In this way, scientists can protect lots of different habitats
而又不把人们逐出传统渔场
while not excluding people from their traditional fishing grounds.
现在 这种独一无二的珍珠串型的保护区网络正准备运作的方式在于
Now, the only way this string-of-pearls kind of reserve network is going to work
让每一区域的珊瑚礁与其他的相互连接
is if each park is connected to other parks.
这有两大优势
There are two main benefits to this.
首先是预防措施
First of all, insurance.
如果一个区域发生些不好的事情
If something bad happens to one park,
也就是 漏油或者珊瑚礁白化
say, an oil spill or coral bleaching,
由于这区域属于这个生态系统的一部分
then because that park is part of a system,
那么它可以从另外的区域互补过来 从而避免事故
it can be reseeded from other parks that escaped the event.
第二个优势是标志性
The second benefit is representation.
通过保护这些不同的区域
By conserving many different areas,
科学家们能确保大量不同的栖息地得到保护
scientists ensure that lots of different habitats get protected.
这样 他们可以确保全部在斐济的海洋生物
This way, they can make sure all the different marine habitats in Fiji,
像珊瑚礁、红树林、海草床
such as coral reefs, mangroves, and sea-grass beds,
都能识别。
are all represented.
通过这种方式,我们在面临禁止捕猎所带来的经济负担的时候
This way, we don’t unduly settle any particular village or group of people
也不会过度建立任何特有的村子和群落
with the economic burden of having their fishing grounds off-limits.
通过分摊周围群体的成本
By sharing the cost around the communities,
同样他们能够收获利益
they can also share the benefits.
所以如果我们赞同不采用一大片区域
So if we agree that rather than one big park,
而采用很多大小不一的区域
we should have lots of parks
并包含不同的生物
of different sizes and covering different habitats,
那么科学家们必须确保每个小区域必须连接起来
then scientists need to make sure those smaller parks are connected,
因为如果不这样 这些区块很可能不能自给自足
because if they’re not, they probably won’t be self-sustaining.
但我们是怎么知道的呢
But how do we know that?
其实就是基因和DNA导致的
That’s where genetics and DNA come in.
通过观察斐济的这些小块保护区
By looking at how closely related
里面的鱼类是如何
the fish in each one of these small reserves in Fiji
紧密联系在一起的
are to each other,
科学家们就能计算出
scientists can figure out
这个生态系统中有多少鱼正在这个保护块中迁移
how much migration is going on among the reserves within the system.
而当务之急就是观察多样的各种物种
Now it’s important to look at a variety of different species
因为不保证某一个群体发生的事情
because there’s no guarantee that what’s going on with these guys
同样也发生在另一个群体身上
is what’s going on with these guys.
但如果你仔细观察足够多的物种
But if we look closely and at enough species,
我们就能知道这连接链是否起到作用
we can see whether or not the necklace is working.
如今科学家们发现的是
What scientists have found so far is that, in general,
总体来说,斐济里大量的生物区块已经连接起来
there’s a fair amount of connectivity amongst the parks within Fiji.
但并非全面地连接
But it’s not just a big free-for-all;
相反地,看上去对于一些物种
rather, it seems that, for some species,
出生在遥远的西部地区的婴儿正在受罪
babies born in the far west are having a hard time
并试图去遥远的东部岛屿
making it to the islands in the far east.
为了解决这个,生物保护学家建议
To help deal with that, conservation biologists are suggesting
西部和东部都需要足够的区域
that there be enough parks in both the east and the west
去维持人口均衡
to keep the populations healthy.
这也不仅仅在斐济
This isn’t just in Fiji, either.
关于连接链的储存的课程可以帮助全世界
Lessons about reserve connectivity can help across the world.
像印尼,巴布亚新几内亚
In places like Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
和巴哈马
and the Bahamas,
科学家正在用大量的工具来帮助理解
scientists are using a variety of tools to help understand
个体区域如何一起运作
how individual parks can function together,
使得他们的总和大于整体
so that their sum is greater than their whole.
而且通过这种方式,我们能够维持我们的珊瑚礁
And this way, we can keep the beautiful necklace
这条美丽的项链完好无缺
that is our coral reefs, intact.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPmlD6demPk

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