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带你了解脑震荡

Concussion: Pathophysiology, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment, Animation

脑震荡是一种影响正常大脑功能的轻微创伤性脑损伤
Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injure that affacts normal brain functions
一般由头部受到直接或间接暴力撞击后而发生的症状
It occurs as a result of a forceful blow either direct or indirect to the head
间接撞击的一种是挥鞭型损伤
An example of an indirect blow is a whiplash type injury that causes the brain to shake
引起大脑在颅骨内快速前后震动
quickly back and forth inside the skull
直接撞击型既可能发生在施力侧
In a direct blow injury may develop on the side of contact with the force
也可能在施力对侧
or on the opposite side of the head
脑震荡可能由高空坠落
Concussion may be caused by Falls
肢体接触性运动 机动车事故和躯体创伤而引发
contact sports motor vehicle accidents or physical abuse
头部的平行 旋转或有角度的移动都可能导致大脑损伤
Brain injure can occur with translational rotational or angular movements of the head
旋转性的和/或有角度的外力会导致大脑扭伤
Rotational and or angular forces cause the brain to twist against the brainstem
连接大脑与脊髓的细茎状的脑干
The thin stalk that connects the brain to the spinal cord
然后破坏里面的结构
and damaged the structures within
由于脑干控制着包含意识在内的许多重要的生理功能
because the brain stem controls many vital bodily functions including consciousness
因此旋转性和角度性外力所致的脑干损伤通常会导致患者丧失意志
Rotational and angularinjuries usually result in loss of consciousness
而且大多数还很严重
and are often more serious
相比组织性损伤 脑震荡更侧重于功能上的受损
concussion is a functional injury rather than structural
脑震荡后的大脑在图像测试中通常看起来与正常大脑无异
A concussed brain usually looks normal on a brain imaging test
而脑部小程度的损伤
the damage occurs at a microscopic level
通常会影响脑部大范围功能区
and generally affects a large area of the brain
由撞击引起的机械冲击会发射震荡波
the mechanical impact exerted by the blow sends shockwaves
在大脑组织里扩散 延伸
that diffuse through the brain tissue
还可能切割神经元的细胞膜
stretching and possibly shearing membranes of neurons
尤其会损伤沿着负责把信号由神经元
especially along the long axons that are responsible for
传给另一个神经元的长轴突
for transmitting signals from one neuron to another
脑震荡期间和之后的机制很复杂 难以完全理解
the events that take place during and after concussion are complex and not fully understood
可能包含离子不平衡
but likely to involve ionic imbalances
和因为血流供应不足而导致的能量缺乏
and energy crisis due to reduced blood flow
以及离子干扰
ionic disturbances
例如钾离子流出和钙离子流入的异常现象
such as abnormal potassium efflux and calcium influx
动作电位的动态介入
interfere with action potential dynamics
中断了正常神经元之间的传导
disrupting normal communication between neurons
血流供应减少会损害细胞功能
reduced blood supply impairs cellular functions
使大脑更容易受到进一步的伤害
and makes the brain more vulnerable to further damage
儿童和青少年的大脑更容易受到伤害
children and teens are at greater risks for brain injury
因为他们的大脑尚未发育完全
because their brain is still developing
因此易受损害的影响
and therefore more susceptible to insults
轴突和尚未完全髓鞘化的幼嫩大脑
axons and young brains are not fully myelinated
更易于受伤且需要花费更长的时间恢复
easier to get damaged and take longer to recover
在持续的脑震荡后大脑发育可能也会中断一段时间
brain development may also stop for some time after sustaining a concussion
脑震荡的标志和症状比较细微
signs and symptoms of concussion can be subtle
可能不能直接表现出来
it may not appear immediately
一般脑震荡的第一症状
it is common for the first signs to show up
会在撞击20分钟到2小时后显露
after 20 mins to 2 hours from the time of impact
症状一般包括:头痛
common symptoms include headache
嗜睡 眩晕 畏光
drowsiness, dizziness, sensitivity to light,
失忆 难以集中注意力 反应迟钝
loss of memory, difficulty concentrating andfeeling slowed down
至少在48小时内应加强对患者的观察
patients should be observed for at least 48 hours
以避免症状恶化 比如意识丧失
for worsening signs such as loss of consciousness
头痛加剧 持续性呕吐 言语障碍
increasing headache, repeated vomiting, slurred speech,
记忆混乱 行为异常 癫痫
confusion, unusual behaviors, seizures
肢体无力或麻木
and limb weakness or numbness
出现以上症状的任一项均需立即进行急救
any of these would require emergency care
在得到身体和心理的休息后脑震荡通常可以自愈
concussion usually resolves on its own with proper physical and cognitive rest
大多数患者在数周后可以完全康复
the majority of people fully recover after a couple of weeks
但部分患者可能需要更久
but some may take longer
在康复期间大脑更容易遭受进一步的损伤
during recovery the brain is much more vulnerable to further insults
所以应该避免进行任何潜在性导致并发症的活动
and any activities that may potentially cause another impact should be avoided
在大脑恢复期间再次受到伤害
a repeated injury while the brain is recovering
可能会恶化病情
may exacerbate symptoms
导致大脑永久性损伤 甚至死亡
result in permanent brain damage and can be fatal
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视频概述

介绍脑震荡的发生原因,发生机制以及症状诊疗。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

然默

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sxh3z12kXjQ

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