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酸和碱的七彩化学

Colorful Chemistry of Acids and Bases

给你变个魔术
Let me show you a magic trick.
这看起来就是个普通的壶
This might look like an ordinary kettle,
但是这是个魔术壶
but it’s a magic kettle.
它的魔力在于它将倒出
And it’s magic because it will pour
我说的任何颜色。
any color that I ask it to.
哦,你不信?
Oh, you don’t believe me?
让我们来看一下
Check this out.
(倒出)粉色
Pink.
嘿,不错吧。
Hey, not bad.
好的,蓝色。
OK, blue.
红色。
Red.
好的
OK.
绿色怎么样?
How about green?
不不不
No, no, no.
我的意思是,黄色。
I mean, yellow.
好的
And OK.
然后是绿色
And then green.
那么接着来
So there we go.
一个彩色的彩虹
A rainbow of colors.
所以我猜你想知道我是怎么做到的
So I bet you’re wondering how I did that.
好吧这不是魔法。
Well it’s not magic.
但是这是美妙又酷的科学。
But it is some pretty cool science.
我的名字是泰勒,我是麻省理工的学生。
My name’s Tyler, and I’m a student at MIT.
我将要教你这门科学。
And I’m going to teach you the science
这个魔术背后的科学。
behind this magic trick.
我将告诉你,怎么自己在家完成它
And I’m going to show you how you can do it yourself at home.
但是我们需要先去实验室
But first we have to go to the lab
学习一种叫酸的化学物质
and learn a little bit about some chemicals called acids,
和一种叫碱的化学物质
and some chemicals called bases.
我们开始吧
So let’s go and check it out.
欢迎来到我的实验室
Welcome to my lab.
这是我存放所有化学用品的地方
This is where I have all my chemicals
我每天都用它们做
that I use for these science experiments
一些科学实验
that I do every day.
我也从家里带一些化学制品到这里来
And I also brought a few of these chemicals here from home.
我在这也有一些烧杯
I also have a bunch of beakers here,
我往烧杯里放一些叫做指示剂的药品
and I filled the beakers with a liquid called indicator.
你可以看到这些指示剂,我使用的这些指示剂
You can see the indicator, this indicator I’m using,
有一些是蓝色的,有一些是紫色的
has sort of a blue, purplish color.
这一步很重要
And that’s going to be important.
指示剂告诉我们
Indicator tells us whether a chemical
化学药品是酸性碱性还是中性
is acid, base, or neutral.
让你看看我的实验
Let me show you what I mean.
我将滴一些化学药品
I’m going to take a chemical here add little drops of it
到这个指示剂当中
to the indicator.
看这些液滴变成了浅紫色
See these drops make a very light purple.
有一些粉色,更多粉色
And there’s some pink, and some more pink,
我滴入的指示剂越多 颜色就越来越粉
and it gets pinker and pinker, the more I add.
现在它变得越来越暗
And now it gets darker and darker,
我最后得到很深的,亮红色
and I eventually get a really deep, bright red.
这是不是很酷?
Isn’t that cool?
如果我往这个指示剂中加入化学药品
If we can add a chemical to this indicator,
然后它变得越来越红,越来越红
and it makes it redder and redder and redder–
它开始时是紫色然后变成粉色最后变为红色
it starts with purple and goes to pink and goes to red–
我们把这种化学药品叫做酸。
we call it an acid.
所以这个化学药品是酸。
So this chemical here is an acid.
让我们看另外一个例子。
Let’s take a look at another example.
这是一个有些新指示剂的烧杯
Here’s a fresh beaker of indicator.
再一次,你可以看到它渐渐地开始有一点蓝,
And again, you can see that it sort of starts at a blue, very
非常浅的紫色。
light purple color.
现在我将使用另一种化学药品,
Now I’m going to take this other chemical,
我将把它添加到指示剂中。
and I’m going to add it to the indicator.
让我们看看现在发生了什么?
Let’s see what happens now.
你可以看到指示剂中有一点绿
You can see little bits of green in the indicator
我开始将这个滴加进去。
as I start dropping this in.
出现很透亮的蓝色,一种非常明亮的蓝色。
Now we go to a really nice, blue color, a very bright blue.
然后它变得有些碧绿。
And then it becomes sort of aquamarine here,
现在越来越绿。
greener and greener now.
现在它将指示剂变成绿色。
And now it turns the indicator green.
我将向你展示如果我添加更多将发生什么。
And I’ll show you what happens if we add even more.
这个变得越来越黄,
This gets more and more yellow, until we
然后我们得到了黄色的溶液。
have a yellow solution.
它真的很亮,很酷,黄的颜色。
And it’s a really bright, cool, yellow color.
如果我们可以加一些化学药品在指示剂中。
If we can add a chemical to an indicator
药品使指示剂变成深蓝色,或者是那种更明亮的蓝色,
and it makes it darker blue, or that brighter blue,
那是真的是很好的蓝色,然后是绿色,最终是黄色。
that really nice blue, and then greener, and finally yellow–
是否它可以变出这些颜色中任何的一种
if it can make any of those colors
当我们把它加到指示剂当中,我们叫它碱
when we add it to the indicator– we call it a base.
所以酸可以使指示剂变为粉色至红色。
So acids make it pink and then red.
碱使指示剂变为蓝色然后变绿,然后变黄,
And bases make it blue and then green and then yellow,
如果我们加一大堆碱的话。
if we add a whole lot of it.
好的
OK.
让我们来看另一个例子
Let’s look at another example.
我还有第三种化学药品
I have a third chemical here.
我将加一些进去,滴入
I’m going to add some of it, dropping it
到这里,很多滴。
in here, lots of drops.
我没有真正的看到任何改变
And I’m not really seeing any change.
颜色依然相同
The color remains the same.
正如你将要看到的,我可以加我想要的量的这个
And as you’ll see, I can add as much of this is I want
颜色仍然将要停留在这个蓝色,略带点紫的颜色。
and the color is still going to stay this blue, purplish color.
那是因为这个化合物,这个化学药品,
That’s because this compound, this chemical,
我们叫它中性。
we call it neutral.
它既不是酸性也不是碱性。
It’s not acid and it’s not base.
所以它不能改变指示剂的颜色。
So it doesn’t change the color of the indicator.
我们可以想加多少就加多少,指示剂
We can add as much as we want and the indicator is just
将保持在相同的颜色。
going to stay the same color.
所以这就是我们的三种类型
So those are our three categories
的化学药品–酸性、碱性和中性。
of chemicals– acids, bases, and then those that are neutral.
我们可以知道
You can tell whether something is
这些东西是酸性碱性还是中性,通过
acid or base or neutral by the color
指示剂显示的颜色。
that it makes an indicator.
你或许会想这个指示剂是一种神奇的化学药品
You may think that this indicator is a fancy chemical
只是在实验室中有,但是事实上
that I’d only have in a lab, but actually I
我制作这个指示剂在我家的后厨。
made this indicator in the kitchen back in my house.
你也可以做相同的事情。
And you can do the same thing.
我们将需要一些指示剂制造魔术把戏。
We’re going to need some indicator for the magic trick
我正在考虑的。
that we’re figuring out.
我将向你展示如何做出这种指示剂
And I’m going to show you how to make this kind of indicator
在你的后厨。
back in your kitchen.
让我们一同去看一下吧。
So let’s go take a look at that.
好的,我们在我的厨房了。
OK, so here we are in my kitchen.
我想向你展示怎么制作这个酸碱指示剂
And I want to show you how to make this acid base
我们将要使用的指示剂,所以你可以亲自做这个颜色
indicator that we’ve been using so you can do these color
改变的实验,所以你可以做这个魔术把戏。
changes yourself, and so you can do the magic trick.
这是非常简单的,
So I will say this is pretty easy,
但是你要先用个炉子烧开一些水。
but you’re going to have to boil some water and use a stove.
所以要确保你的身边有成人
So make sure you have an adult around
帮助你完成那个步骤。
to help you with that step.
这是我们将要用到的东西。
Here’s the stuff you’re going to need.
首先,你需要一个红叶卷心菜。
First of all, you’re going to need a red cabbage.
你可以找出一些
You should be able to find something
像这样的在任何超市。
like this at any supermarket.
然后,你需要一把壶去烧开水
And then you’re going to need a pot to boil some water in.
然后你需要一个过滤器。
And then you’re going to need a strainer.
然后都准备好了。
And that’s it.
这非常简单。
It’s pretty simple.
所以你想做的是什么就是你拿着这个壶
So what you want to do is you want to take the pot
你想要装一半水
and you want to fill it about halfway up with water.
然后你需要放卷心菜
And then you want to take the cabbage,
然后开始扯下其中的一些叶子
and start pulling off parts of its leaves
把那些放到平底锅中
and putting those in the pan.
然后你来装满它直到所有的卷心菜
And you want to fill it up until pretty much all the cabbage
被水覆盖。
is covered with water.
到这么多在这非常好
So this is a pretty good amount right about here.
然后你要做的是开大火烧开水
And then what you want to do is turn up the heat and boil
……
water.
让它沸腾四五分钟
Let it boil for four or five minutes.
然后关掉火
And then turn the heat off and let
让它呆十五分钟,十至十五分钟
it sit for 15 minutes, 10 to 15 minutes.
然后在你做完这些以后,你将看到的是
And after you do that, what you’re going to see
就是卷心菜将失去它的颜色
is the cabbage is going to lose its color.
在卷心菜叶子里的紫色染料
All that purple dye that was in the cabbage leaves
进入了水中
is going to come out into the water.
最后结束的时候你就获得了紫色的卷心菜汁液
And you’re going to end up with purple cabbage juice.
最后要做的事情就是
And then the final thing you need to do
你需要拿着这个,用过滤器,
is you need to take this and, using a strainer,
从过滤器上方倾倒紫色的汁液,
pour the juice off the top of it.
现在你获得了你的卷心菜汁液的指示剂
And now you have your cabbage juice indicator
然后准备开始。
all ready to go.
让我们看看我们能用这个指示剂做什么
Let’s go and see what we can do this indicator,
然后观察我们是怎么做这个魔术的
and then find out how we can do this magic trick.
现在我们准备好了卷心菜汁
OK, so now that you’ve made your cabbage juice,
你可以开始给家里的物品做实验了
you’re all ready to start testing things around the house
看看它们是酸性 中性还是碱性的
to see whether they’re acid, neutral, or basic.
观察这奇妙的颜色变化
and see those cool color changes.
你可以在家里用我身旁边的
I have here next to me a few examples
这些物品做实验
of things that you can test around the house.
不论它是液体还是粉末
But really anything that’s a liquid or a powder,
你都可以进行这个实验
you should be able to test.
不过你得让你的父母先检查下
Just check with your parents first
确保你没有用到一些危险物品
to make sure that you don’t use anything that’s
或是有毒物品
dangerous or toxic or anything.
一切都准备就绪
So OK everything with them first.
但让我先做个简单的例子
But let’s just do a quick example here.
假设你想先测试下
Let’s say that you wanted to test a little bit of a glass
玻璃洗涤液
cleaner here.
先往玻璃杯里喷一些
You could spray just a little bit into the bottom of a glass,
然后加入指示剂
and then add the indicator.

Ooh.
有些蓝绿了 我们知道这就是碱
It turns a sort of blue green, so we know that it’s a base.
如果我们想做辣椒酱实验
Or let’s say that we wanted to test some hot sauce here.
先加入两滴辣椒酱
Add a little of the hot sauce, couple drops in there.
然后只要添加
And then all we’ve got to do is just add
一点指示剂
a little bit of the indicator.
哇 漂亮的红色 有点粉红的红色
Oh, and we get a nice, a nice red, sort of pinkish color.
我们都知道了这就是酸
So we know that this is an acid.
让我们谈谈魔术
Now let’s talk about the magic trick.
我是怎么做到的呢?
So how did I do it?
你可能知道了这是怎么回事
Well, you might sort of have been figuring parts of it out.
我拿着一个里面装满了
I took my tea kettle here.
指示剂的水壶
And I filled it with indicator.
你知道的 指示剂最终的呈色
An indicator, as you know, changes color
取决于我加入的是酸还是碱
depending on whether I add an acid or base.
我要做的就是拿一个玻璃杯
So what I did was I took glasses like this,
然后往里面加入
and I added a little bit of acid or base
一些酸或者碱
into the very bottom of it.
这些酸和碱必须是澄清的液体
I tried to find clear liquids that were acids and bases.
在此举个例子
So let’s do an example here.
如果我要得到红色
Let’s say that I wanted a red color.
我要往里面加点醋
What I do is I take a little bit of vinegar–
我用醋的原因是它是酸
and I’d use vinegar because I know that vinegar is an acid,
这会使指示剂变红
so it’s going to give me a red color–
倒入一点点醋
add a little bit of this into the bottom here.
如果你现在做这个魔术
Now if you’re doing this magic trick,
你会看到杯底有一些无色液体
you’ll be able to see the clear liquid in the bottom.
但相信我 没有人会发现的
But trust me, no one else will, especially
特别是观众离你有一定距离
if you make sure that they keep a little bit of distance,
而且你用的是一个
especially if you’re using a clear glass, a clear glass
放置在桌面的透明玻璃杯
like this, they won’t be able to see it
观众是不会发现的
if you have it on a table.
你可以说这是空杯子 你也可以什么都不说
So you say that they’re empty, or don’t say anything at all
观众自己就觉得这是空杯子
and people will assume that they’re empty.
然后你就拿起水壶
And then go ahead and you take your tea
或者说是装满指示剂的水壶 然后把水倒进杯子里
kettle, or your pitcher of indicator, and you pour it in.
你会看到鲜红色或者粉色
And you’ll get a nice red or a pink color.
会了吗
OK.
你可以得到很多色系的颜色
So there are a whole wide range of colors you can get.
有红色 有粉色
You can get reds and you’re going
有蓝色 有紫色 有绿色
to get pinks and blues and purples and greens.
我想要你做的就是实验
And what I want you to do is experiment
找出你家里的化学物品
to find out which of these chemicals in your house
能给你哪种颜色
give you these different colors.
然后你往杯子里倒入一些会呈现
And then put a little bit of that chemical that gives you
你想得到的颜色的化学物品
the color in the bottom.
然后倒入指示剂 就出现了你想要的颜色
And pour in the indicator to get that color.
你现在可能发现不同的化学物品会
Now you may find that different amounts of these chemicals
呈现不同的颜色
give you different colors.
一点点玻璃清洗剂可能
So maybe a little bit of glass cleaner
会得到亮蓝色 但大量的玻璃清洗剂
will give you a bright blue, but a little bit more glass cleaner
会得到绿色
will give you a green.
所以把这些物品都做下实验
So experiment with all these things.
然而我想告诉你的一件事就是
There’s one thing that I do want to tell you, though.
你可以得到很漂亮的黄色
You can get a really nice, yellow color
只需要一点漂白剂
by using a little bit of bleach.
但漂白剂有一定危险性
But bleach can be dangerous, so make sure
所以确保你做实验的时候有家长陪同
that you work with an adult if you’re going to do this.
往杯子里滴入几滴漂白剂
Put a few drops of bleach in the bottom of a glass like this,
加一点指示剂 它变绿色了
add some indicator, and it turns green,
然后慢慢变黄
and then it turns yellow.
这就是我一开始做的实验
And that’s how I did that thing at the very beginning
它开始变绿 慢慢变黄
when it started off green and then it turned yellow.
希望你喜欢这个视频
So I hope you’ve enjoyed watching this video.
我们学了一点酸碱知识
We learned a little bit about acids and bases.
我们了解了指示剂
We learned about indicators.
我们也学会了如何变这个炫酷的魔术
And we learned how to do this pretty cool magic trick
现在你就可以给你的家人朋友展示这个魔术了
that now you can use to impress your friends and family.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko5iDMYzwWE

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