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清澈的水滴为什么会产生彩虹色 – 译学馆
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清澈的水滴为什么会产生彩虹色

Color drops

– [Narrator] A team of scientists from MIT and Penn State
麻省理工学院和宾州州立大学的科研团队
have observed that, under the right conditions,
发现在适宜的条件下
ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface
处于透明表面上普通的清澈液滴
can produce brilliant colors without the addition of inks or dyes.
无需添加色素就能产生明亮的色彩
This iridescent effect is due to what is known as structural color
这种虹彩效应是由所谓的结构色造成的
by which an object generates color simply by the way
结构色即是物体产生色彩仅仅是通过
light interacts with its geometric structure.
光和它的几何结构相互作用
In this case, the researchers were able to observe
这样一来 科研人员就能够观察
and ultimately model how light travels through droplets
并最终通过特定大小的液滴来模拟
of a particular size when it enters at a particular angle.
光以特定的角度射入时 光是怎样传播的
The model they developed allows them to predict
他们开发的这种模型可以预测
the color a droplet will produce given those specific optical and structural conditions.
液滴在特定的结构和光学条件下产生的颜色
The researchers imagined their model could be used
科研人员预想 他们的模型
in the future as a design guide
在将来可用作设计指南
to produce droplet-based litmus tests,
指导基于液滴的石蕊试验
or color changing powders and inks in art and makeup products
或在不需要潜在的不健康合成染料的情况下
without the need for potentially unhealthy synthetic dyes.
生产艺术和化妆品中的变色粉末和油墨
At first, the researchers though the color they observed
最初 科研人员认为他们观测到的颜色
might be due to the effect that can cause rainbows,
可能是产生雨后彩虹的那种效应
but they soon realized it was in fact something quite different.
但他们很快发现 这与雨滴产生彩虹完全是不同的两件事
They observed that droplets on a flat surface
他们观察到 在平面上的水滴
were hemispheres rather than spheres,
不是球形而是半球形的
like the raindrops that cause rainbows.
就像产生彩虹的雨滴一样
They found that a hemisphere’s concave surface
他们发现 半球的凹面
allows an optical effect called total internal reflection
会产生一种被称为全内反射的光学效应
that is mostly not possible in perfect spheres.
这在完美的球体上是几乎不可能出现的
The researchers found once light makes its way
研究人员发现 一旦光线进入液滴
into a droplet, it can take different paths,
它可以变换路径
bouncing two, three, or more times
反射两次 三次 或者更多次
before exiting at another angle.
然后再从另一个角度射出
The way light rays add up as they exit
光线射出之前的叠加方式
determines whether a droplet will produce color or not
决定了水滴是否会产生颜色
and what color is produced.
以及会产生何种颜色
The color that droplets produce also depends on structural conditions
水滴所产生的颜色还取决于结构条件
such as the size and curvature of the droplets.
比如液滴的大小和曲率
To test their model, the team produced a layer
为了测试该模型 科研团队制作了
of bi-phase oil droplets of the exact same size
一层完全大小的两相油滴层
in a clear Petri dish, which they illuminated
将其置于透明的培养皿中
with a single, fixed, white light.
用一束固定的白光对其进行照亮
They then recorded the droplets with a camera
然后利用绕着培养皿旋转的相机
that circled around the dish,
记录了液滴的运动轨迹
and observed that the droplets exhibited brilliant colors
并观测到液滴呈现出了绚丽的颜色
that shifted as the camera circled around.
且颜色随相机的运动不断变化
This demonstrated how the angle at which light
这证明了光线射入液滴时的观察角度
is seen to enter the droplet affects the droplet’s color.
是如何影响液滴颜色的
The team also produced droplets of various sizes on a single film, and observed that,
研究团队还在单个胶片上制作不同大小的液滴并观察它们
when viewed in a microscope,
当用显微镜进行观测时
each droplet produces a different color depending on its size,
发现液滴因大小不同而呈现出不同的色彩
and the color always emanates from the contact lines between the various liquids.
且色彩往往出现在液滴之间的接触线上
When viewed macroscopically, these droplets together
但从宏观上看 液滴整体
just appear a glitter-white color.
呈现的只是闪闪发光的白色
The team expects that their model may be used to
科研团队希望他们的模型也许可以用来
for an array of color-changing applications
来应用于一系列变色领域中
where one could tailor a droplet’s size, morphology,
并且可以调整液滴的大小 形态
and observation conditions to create a specific color.
和观察条件来创造特定的颜色

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清澈的液滴为什么会产生五彩斑斓的颜色?想知道原因吗,一起来看视频吧!

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